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Author (up) Fender, C.K.; Kelly, T.B.; Guidi, L.; Ohman, M.D.; Smith, M.C.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating Particle Size-Flux Relationships and the Biological Pump Across a Range of Plankton Ecosystem States From Coastal to Oligotrophic Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1075  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Fender, C.K.; Kelly, T.B.; Guidi, L.; Ohman, M.D.; Smith, M.C.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating Particle Size-Flux Relationships and the Biological Pump Across a Range of Plankton Ecosystem States From Coastal to Oligotrophic Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Sinking particles transport organic carbon produced in the surface ocean to the ocean interior, leading to net storage of atmospheric CO2 in the deep ocean. The rapid growth of in situ imaging technology has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of particle flux attenuation in the ocean; however, estimating particle flux from particle size and abundance (measured directly by in situ cameras) is challenging. Sinking rates are dependent on several factors, including particle excess density and porosity, which vary based on particle origin and type. Additionally, particle characteristics are transformed while sinking. We compare optically measured particle size spectra profiles (Underwater Vision Profiler 5, UVP) with contemporaneous measurements of particle flux made using sediment traps and 234Th:238U disequilibrium on six process cruises from the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) LTER Program. These measurements allow us to assess the efficacy of size-flux relationships for estimating fluxes from optical particle size measurements. We find that previously published parameterizations that estimate carbon flux from UVP profiles are a poor fit to direct flux measurements in the CCE. This discrepancy is found to result primarily from the important role of fecal pellets in particle flux. These pellets are primarily in a size range (i.e., 100�400 μm) that is not well-resolved as images by the UVP due to the resolution of the sensor. We develop new, CCE-optimized parameters for use in an algorithm estimating carbon flux from UVP data in the southern California Current (Flux = ∑i=1xniAdBiΔdi), with A = 15.4, B = 1.05, d = particle diameter (mm) and Flux in units of mg C m�2 d�1. We caution, however, that increased accuracy in flux estimates derived from optical instruments will require devices with greater resolution, the ability to differentiate fecal pellets from low porosity marine snow aggregates, and improved sampling of rapidly sinking fecal pellets. We also find that the particle size-flux relationships may be different within the euphotic zone than in the shallow twilight zone and hypothesize that the changing nature of sinking particles with depth must be considered when investigating the remineralization length scale of sinking particles in the ocean.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1081  
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Author (up) Fox-Kemper, B.; Adcroft, A.; Böning, C.W.; Chassignet, E.P.; Curchitser, E.; Danabasoglu, G.; Eden, C.; England, M.H.; Gerdes, R.; Greatbatch, R.J.; Griffies, S.M.; Hallberg, R.W.; Hanert, E.; Heimbach, P.; Hewitt, H.T.; Hill, C.N.; Komuro, Y.; Legg, S.; Le Sommer, J.; Masina, S.; Marsland, S.J.; Penny, S.G.; Qiao, F.; Ringler, T.D.; Treguier, A.M.; Tsujino, H.; Uotila, P.; Yeager, S.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Challenges and Prospects in Ocean Circulation Models Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Southern Ocean; Overturning Circulation: Regional sea level; submesoscale; ice shelves; turbulence  
  Abstract We revisit the challenges and prospects for ocean circulation models following Griffies et al. (2010). Over the past decade, ocean circulation models evolved through improved understanding, numerics, spatial discretization, grid configurations, parameterizations, data assimilation, environmental monitoring, and process-level observations and modeling. Important large scale applications over the last decade are simulations of the Southern Ocean, the Meridional Overturning Circulation and its variability, and regional sea level change. Submesoscale variability is now routinely resolved in process models and permitted in a few global models, and submesoscale effects are parameterized in most global models. The scales where nonhydrostatic effects become important are beginning to be resolved in regional and process models. Coupling to sea ice, ice shelves, and high-resolution atmospheric models has stimulated new ideas and driven improvements in numerics. Observations have provided insight into turbulence and mixing around the globe and its consequences are assessed through perturbed physics models. Relatedly, parameterizations of the mixing and overturning processes in boundary layers and the ocean interior have improved. New diagnostics being used for evaluating models alongside present and novel observations are briefly referenced. The overall goal is summarizing new developments in ocean modeling, including how new and existing observations can be used, what modeling challenges remain, and how simulations can be used to support observations.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1011  
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Author (up) Freeman, E.; Kent, E.C.; Brohan, P.; Cram, T.; Gates, L.; Huang, B.; Liu, C.; Smith, S.R.; Worley, S.J.; Zhang, H.-M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set – Meeting Users Needs and Future Priorities Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages 435  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a collection and archive of in situ marine observations, which has been developed over several decades as an international project and recently guided by formal international partnerships and the ICOADS Steering Committee. ICOADS contains observations from many different observing systems encompassing the evolution of measurement technology since the 18th century. ICOADS provides an integrated source of observations for a range of applications including research and climate monitoring, and forms the main marine in situ surface data source, e.g., near-surface ocean observations and lower atmospheric marine-meteorological observations from buoys, ships, coastal stations, and oceanographic sensors, for oceanic and atmospheric research and reanalysis. ICOADS has developed ways to incorporate user and reanalyses feedback information associated with permanent unique identifiers and is also the main repository for data that have been rescued from ships’ logbooks and other marine data digitization activities. ICOADS has been adopted widely because it provides convenient access to a range of observation types, globally, and through the entire marine instrumental record. ICOADS has provided a secure home for such observations for decades. Because of the increased volume of observations, particularly those available in near-real-time, and an expansion of their diversity, the ICOADS processing system now requires extensive modernization. Based on user feedback, we will outline the improvements that are required, the challenges to their implementation, and the benefits of upgrading this important and diverse marine archive and distribution activity.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1041  
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Author (up) Groenen, Danielle Elizabeth openurl 
  Title Diagnosing the Atmospheric Phenomena Associated with the Onset and Demise of the Rainy Season in Mesoamerica Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mexico and Central America (Mesoamerica) are situated in a complex and unique geographical position with the Caribbean Sea to the East and the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean to the West. The weather patterns of this region are driven by winds, temperatures, moisture, and orography of several mountain ranges. This study finds the dates of the onset and demise of rainfall regimes on a specific day using NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall for years 1998–2012, area-averaged over land. Using NASA’s MERRA-2 Reanalysis data, we also look at the phenomenology of the triggers of the rainy season onset and demise on the daily time-scale instead of the monthly scales used by previous studies.

We find that the Mesoamerican Rainy Season can be distinguished into two parts: the Early Spring Rainfall (ESR) associated with light rains and the Late Spring Rainfall (LSR) associated with heavy rains. Two algorithms are used to obtain these rainy season distinctions. A new algorithm was developed during this study, called the SLOPE algorithm, to calculate when the rain rates first start to increase. In the second method, the daily cumulative anomalies of rainfall are compared to the climatological rainfall to find the time of onset of the heavy rains, called the MINCA algorithm. To better understand the phenomenology associated with the timing of the rainfall, we look at the monsoon trough, moisture flux convergence, moist static energy anomalies, and the weakening/strengthening of the winds associated with the Caribbean Low-Level Jet and Panama Jet.

The light rain rates begin, on average, in mid-March, approximately one month after the peak of the winter Caribbean Low-Level Jet and the Panama Jet. The ramp-up between the light rains and heavy rains is associated with a significant weakening of both jets and the northward progression of a monsoon trough off the western coast of Central America. The heavy rain rates begin, on average, in mid-May, and are associated with the timing when the Panama Jet goes to near zero magnitude and a strong monsoon trough in the eastern Pacific. At the demise of the rainfall, approximately in mid-November, the Panama Jet strengthens again, the total moisture flux convergence decreases significantly, and the monsoon trough retreats southward and eastward. The results of this study have positive implications in agriculture and water resources for Mesoamerica, as this information may help resource managers better plan and adapt to climate variability.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1085  
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Author (up) Guerra, L.A.A.; Paiva, A.M.; Chassignet, E.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On the translation of Agulhas rings to the western South Atlantic Ocean Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 104-113  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The shedding of Agulhas rings is the primary process connecting the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The rings transport warm and salty waters that feed the surface limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Early studies suggest that Agulhas rings decay and diffuse their contents within the South Atlantic subtropical gyre. In this paper, we update the ring census using an automated algorithm to detect and track eddies over more than 23 years of satellite altimetry data (1993-2016) and calculate their main characteristics. While 140 rings spawned from the Agulhas Retroflection, their following splitting and merging resulted in 74 long-lived rings that crossed the Walvis Ridge and translated towards the west. Eventually, three rings reached the western boundary. For one of them, we use in situ measurements to document its interaction with the Brazil Current and two cyclonic eddies, which resulted in a current velocity increase by three times. Although already hypothesized, this interaction had not been demonstrated with in situ evidence until now.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 994  
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Author (up) Hu, X.; Cai, M.; Yang, S.; Wu, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Delineation of thermodynamic and dynamic responses to sea surface temperature forcing associated with El Niño Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Climate Dynamics Abbreviated Journal Clim Dyn  
  Volume 51 Issue 11-12 Pages 4329-4344  
  Keywords El Niño; SST anomalies; Thermodynamic and dynamic responses; Gill-type response  
  Abstract A new framework is proposed to gain a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere over the tropical Pacific to the radiative heating anomaly associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in canonical El Niño winters. The new framework is based on the equilibrium balance between thermal radiative cooling anomalies associated with air temperature response to SST anomalies and other thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The air temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere are mainly in response to radiative heating anomalies associated with SST, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud anomalies that all exhibit similar spatial patterns. As a result, air temperature induced thermal radiative cooling anomalies would balance out most of the radiative heating anomalies in the lower troposphere. The remaining part of the radiative heating anomalies is then taken away by an enhancement (a reduction) of upward energy transport in the central-eastern (western) Pacific basin, a secondary contribution to the air temperature anomalies in the lower troposphere. Above the middle troposphere, radiative effect due to water vapor feedback is weak. Thermal radiative cooling anomalies are mainly in balance with the sum of latent heating anomalies, vertical and horizontal energy transport anomalies associated with atmospheric dynamic response and the radiative heating anomalies due to changes in cloud. The pattern of Gill-type response is attributed mainly to the non-radiative heating anomalies associated with convective and large-scale energy transport. The radiative heating anomalies associated with the anomalies of high clouds also contribute positively to the Gill-type response. This sheds some light on why the Gill-type atmospheric response can be easily identifiable in the upper atmosphere.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0930-7575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 997  
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Author (up) Huang, T.; Armstrong, E.M.; Bourassa, M.A.; Cram, T.A.; Elya, J.; Greguska, F.; Jacob, J.C.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Li, Y.; Quach, N.T.; McGibbney, L.J.; Smith, S.R.; Wilson, B.D.; Worley S.J.; Yang, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An Integrated Data Analytics Platform Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords big data, Cloud computing, Ocean science, data analysis, Matchup, anomaly detection, open source  
  Abstract An Integrated Science Data Analytics Platform is an environment that enables the confluence of resources for scientific investigation. It harmonizes data, tools and computational resources to enable the research community to focus on the investigation rather than spending time on security, data preparation, management, etc. OceanWorks is a NASA technology integration project to establish a cloud-based Integrated Ocean Science Data Analytics Platform for big ocean science at NASA�s Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) for big ocean science. It focuses on advancement and maturity by bringing together several NASA open-source, big data projects for parallel analytics, anomaly detection, in situ to satellite data matchup, quality-screened data subsetting, search relevancy, and data discovery.

Our communities are relying on data available through distributed data centers to conduct their research. In typical investigations, scientists would (1) search for data, (2) evaluate the relevance of that data, (3) download it, and (4) then apply algorithms to identify trends, anomalies, or other attributes of the data. Such a workflow cannot scale if the research involves a massive amount of data or multi-variate measurements. With the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission expected to produce over 20PB of observational data during its 3-year nominal mission, the volume of data will challenge all existing Earth Science data archival, distribution and analysis paradigms. This paper discusses how OceanWorks enhances the analysis of physical ocean data where the computation is done on an elastic cloud platform next to the archive to deliver fast, web-accessible services for working with oceanographic measurements.
 
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1038  
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Author (up) Jackson, L.C.; Dubois, C.; Forget, G.; Haines, K.; Harrison, M.; Iovino, D.; Köhl, A.; Mignac, D.; Masina, S.; Peterson, K.A.; Piecuch, C.G.; Roberts, C.D.; Robson, J.; Storto, A.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, M.; Wilson, C.; Wang, Y.; Zuo, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Mean State and Variability of the North Atlantic Circulation: A Perspective From Ocean Reanalyses Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Oceans  
  Volume 124 Issue 12 Pages 8969-9003  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The transfer of Indian Ocean thermocline and intermediate waters into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage is generally believed to be primarily accomplished through mesoscale eddy processes, essentially anticyclones known as Agulhas Rings. Here we take advantage of a recent eddy tracking algorithm and Argo float profiles to study the evolution and the thermohaline structure of one of these eddies over the course of 1.5 years (May 2013–November 2014). We found that during this period the ring evolved according to two different phases: During the first one, taking place in winter, the mixing layer in the eddy deepened significantly. During the second phase, the eddy subsided below the upper warmer layer of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre while propagating west. The separation of this eddy from the sea surface could explain the decrease in its surface signature in satellite altimetry maps, suggesting that such changes are not due to eddy dissipation processes. It is a very large eddy (7.1×1013 m3 in volume), extending, after subduction, from a depth of 200–1,200 m and characterized by two mode water cores. The two mode water cores represent the largest eddy heat and salt anomalies when compared with the surrounding. In terms of its impact over 1 year, the north‐westward propagation of this long‐lived anticyclone induces a transport of 2.2 Sv of water, 0.008 PW of heat, and 2.2×105 kg s−1 of salt. These results confirm that Agulhas Rings play a very important role in the Indo‐Atlantic interocean exchange of heat and salt.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2169-9275 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1080  
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Author (up) Jacob, J. C.; Armstrong, E. M.; Bourassa, M. A.; Cram, T.; Elya, J. L.; Greguska, F. R., III; Huang, T.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Li, Y.; McGibbney, L. J.; Quach, N.; Smith, S. R.; Tsontos, V. M.; Wilson, B. D.; Worley, S. J.; Yang, C. P. url  openurl
  Title OceanWorks: Enabling Interactive Oceanographic Analysis in the Cloud with Multivariate Data Type $loc['typeAbstract']
  Year 2018 Publication American Geophysical Union Abbreviated Journal AGU  
  Volume Fall Meeting Issue Pages  
  Keywords 910 Data assimilation, integration and fusion, INFORMATICSDE: 1916 Data and information discovery, INFORMATICSDE: 1926 Geospatial, INFORMATICSDE: 1942 Machine learning, INFORMATICS  
  Abstract NASA's Advanced Information System Technology (AIST) Program sponsors the OceanWorks project to establish an integrated data analytics center at the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC). OceanWorks provides a series of interoperable capabilities that are essential for cloud-scale oceanographic research. These include big data analytics, data search with subsecond response, intelligent ranking of search results, subsetting based on data quality metrics, and rapid spatiotemporal matchup of satellite measurements with distributed in situ data. The software behind OceanWorks is being developed as an open source project in the Apache Incubator Science Data Analytics Platform (SDAP – http://sdap.apache.org). In this presentation we describe how OceanWorks enables efficient, scalable, interactive and interdisciplinary oceanographic analysis with multivariate data.

Interactivity is enabled by a number of SDAP features. First, SDAP provides Representational State Transfer (REST) interfaces to a number of built-in cloud analytics to compute time series, time-averaged maps, correlation maps, climatological maps, Hovmöller maps, and more. To access these, users simply navigate to a properly constructed parameterized URL in their web browser or issue web services calls in a variety of programming languages or in a Jupyter notebook. Alternatively, Python clients can make function calls via the NEXUS Command Line Interface (CLI). Authenticated users can even inject their own custom code via REST calls or the CLI.

To enable interdisciplinary science, OceanWorks provides access to a rich collection of multivariate satellite and in situ measurements of the oceans (e.g., sea surface temperature, height and salinity, chlorophyll and circulation) and other Earth science data (e.g., aerosol optical depth and wind speed), coupled with on-demand processing capabilities close to the data. We partition the data across space or time into tiles and store them into cloud-aware databases that are collocated with the computations. We will provide examples of scientific studies directly enabled by OceanWorks' multivariate data and cloud analytics.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1005  
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