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Author Brzezinski, M.A.; Krause, J.W.; Bundy, R.M.; Barbeau, K.A.; Franks, P.; Goericke, R.; Landry, M.R.; Stukel, M.R.
Title Enhanced silica ballasting from iron stress sustains carbon export in a frontal zone within the California Current Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Oceans
Volume 120 Issue 7 Pages 4654-4669
Keywords phytoplankton; diatoms; iron limitation; nutrient ratios; nutrient stoichiometry; carbon export
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2169-9275 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 97
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Author Kelly, T.B.; Goericke, R.; Kahru, M.; Song, H.; Stukel, M.R.
Title CCE II: Spatial and interannual variability in export efficiency and the biological pump in an eastern boundary current upwelling system with substantial lateral advection Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume 140 Issue Pages 14-25
Keywords CALIFORNIA CURRENT ECOSYSTEM; OCEAN CARBON-CYCLE; COASTAL WATERS; FRONTAL ZONE; TIME-SERIES; FLUX; SINKING; SEA; PACIFIC; ZOOPLANKTON
Abstract Estimating interannual variability in carbon export is a key goal of many marine biogeochemical studies. However, due to variations in export mechanisms between regions, generalized models used to estimate global patterns in export often fail when used for intra-regional analysis. We present here a region-specific model of export production for the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) parameterized using intensive Lagrangian process studies conducted during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm and neutral phases by the CCE Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program. We find that, contrary to expectations from prominent global algorithms, export efficiency (e-ratio = export / primary productivity) is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with net primary productivity (NPP). We attribute these results to the substantial horizontal advection found within the region, and verify this assumption by using a Lagrangian particle tracking model to estimate water mass age. We further suggest that sinking particles in the CCE are comprised of a recently-produced, rapidly-sinking component (likely mesozooplankton fecal pellets) and a longer-lived, slowly-sinking component that is likely advected long distances prior to export. We determine a new algorithm for estimating particle export in the CCE from NPP (Export = 0.08 · NPP + 72 mg C m-2 d-1). We apply this algorithm to a two-decade long time series of NPP in the CCE to estimate spatial and interannual variability across multiple ENSO phases. Reduced export during the warm anomaly of 2014-2015 and El Niño 2015-2016 resulted primarily from decreased export in the coastal upwelling region of the CCE; the oligotrophic offshore region exhibited comparatively low seasonal and interannual variability in flux. The model resolves intra-regional patterns of in situ export measurements, and provides a valuable contrast to global export models.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 984
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Author Kelly, T.B.; Goericke, R.; Kahru, M.; Song, H.; Stukel, M.R.
Title CCE II: Spatial and interannual variability in export efficiency and the biological pump in an eastern boundary current upwelling system with substantial lateral advection Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume 140 Issue Pages 14-25
Keywords california current ecosystem; coastal waters; flux; frontal zone; ocean carbon-cycle; oceanography; pacific; sea; sinking; time-series; Zooplankton
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1022
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Author Kranz, S.A.; Wang, S.; Kelly, T.B.; Stukel, M.R.; Goericke, R.; Landry, M.R.; Cassar, N.
Title Lagrangian Studies of Marine Production: A Multimethod Assessment of Productivity Relationships in the California Current Ecosystem Upwelling Region Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Oceans
Volume 125 Issue 6 Pages
Keywords gross primary production; long‐ term ecological research; equilibrium inlet mass spectrometry; carbon export; net community production
Abstract A multimethod process‐oriented investigation of diverse productivity measures in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) Long‐Term Ecological Research study region, a complex physical environment, is presented. Seven multiday deployments covering a transition region from high to low productivity were conducted over two field expeditions (spring 2016 and summer 2017). Employing a Lagrangian study design, water parcels were followed over several days, comparing 24‐h in situ measurements (14C and 15NO3 ‐uptake, dilution estimates of phytoplankton growth, and microzooplankton grazing) with high‐resolution productivity measurements by fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) and equilibrium inlet mass spectrometry (EIMS), and integrated carbon export measuremnts using sediment traps. Results show the importance of accounting for temporal and fine spatial scale variability when estimating ecosystem production. FRRF and EIMS measurements resolved diel patterns in gross primary and net community production. Diel productivity changes agreed well with comparably more traditional measurements. While differences in productivity metrics calculated over different time intervals were considerable, as those methods rely on different base assumptions, the data can be used to explain ecosystem processes which would otherwise have gone unnoticed. The processes resolved from this method comparison further understanding of temporal and spatial coupling and decoupling of surface productivity and potential carbon burial in a gradient from coastal to offshore ecosystems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2169-9275 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1113
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Author Morrow, R.M.; Ohman, M.D.; Goericke, R.; Kelly, T.B.; Stephens, B.M.; Stukel, M.R.
Title CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Niño Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume 140 Issue Pages 52-62
Keywords Carbon export; Fecal pellets; Sinking particles; Interannual variability; Net primary productivity; Eastern boundary upwelling system KeyWords Plus:ZOOPLANKTON FECAL PELLETS; NORTH PACIFIC-OCEAN; CURRENT SYSTEM; SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA; UNDERWATER GLIDERS; CARBON EXPORT; ZONE; CHLOROPHYLL; STABILITY; EQUATIONS
Abstract Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014-2015) followed by an El Nino (2015-2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We compare primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from the euphotic zone during quasi-Lagrangian experiments conducted in contrasting conditions: two cruises during warm years – one during the warm anomaly in 2014 and one toward the end of El Nino 2016 – and three cruises during El Ninoneutral years. Results showed no substantial differences in the relationships between vertical carbon export and its presumed drivers (primary production, mesozooplankton grazing) between warm and neutral years. Mesozooplankton fecal pellet enumeration and phaeopigment measurements both showed that fecal pellets were the dominant contributor to export in productive upwelling regions. In more oligotrophic regions, fluxes were dominated by amorphous marine snow with negligible pigment content. We found no evidence for a significant shift in the relationship between mesozooplankton grazing rate and chlorophyll concentration. However, massspecific grazing rates were lower at low-to-moderate chlorophyll concentrations during warm years relative to neutral years. We also detected a significant difference in the relationship between phytoplankton primary production and photosynthetically active radiation between years: at similar irradiance and nutrient concentrations, productivity decreased during the warm events. Whether these changes resulted from species composition changes remains to be determined. Overall, our results suggest that the processes driving export remain similar during different climate conditions, but that species compositional changes or other structural changes require further attention.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 983
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Author Morrow, R.M.; Ohman, M.D.; Goericke, R.; Kelly, T.B.; Stephens, B.M.; Stukel, M.R.
Title CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Niño Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Carbon export; Fecal pellets; Sinking particles; Interannual variability; Net primary productivity; Eastern boundary upwelling system
Abstract Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014�2015) followed by an El Niño (2015�2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We compare primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from the euphotic zone during quasi-Lagrangian experiments conducted in contrasting conditions: two cruises during warm years – one during the warm anomaly in 2014 and one toward the end of El Niño 2016 � and three cruises during El Niño-neutral years. Results showed no substantial differences in the relationships between vertical carbon export and its presumed drivers (primary production, mesozooplankton grazing) between warm and neutral years. Mesozooplankton fecal pellet enumeration and phaeopigment measurements both showed that fecal pellets were the dominant contributor to export in productive upwelling regions. In more oligotrophic regions, fluxes were dominated by amorphous marine snow with negligible pigment content. We found no evidence for a significant shift in the relationship between mesozooplankton grazing rate and chlorophyll concentration. However, mass-specific grazing rates were lower at low-to-moderate chlorophyll concentrations during warm years relative to neutral years. We also detected a significant difference in the relationship between phytoplankton primary production and photosynthetically active radiation between years: at similar irradiance and nutrient concentrations, productivity decreased during the warm events. Whether these changes resulted from species composition changes remains to be determined. Overall, our results suggest that the processes driving export remain similar during different climate conditions, but that species compositional changes or other structural changes require further attention
Address Deep-Sea Research Part I
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 966
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Morrow, R.M.; Ohman, M.D.; Goericke, R.; Kelly, T.B.; Stephens, B.M.; Stukel, M.R.
Title CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Niño Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume 140 Issue Pages 52-62
Keywords Carbon export; Fecal pellets; Sinking particles; Interannual variability; Net primary productivity; Eastern boundary upwelling system
Abstract Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014-2015) followed by an El Nino (2015-2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We compare primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from the euphotic zone during quasi-Lagrangian experiments conducted in contrasting conditions: two cruises during warm years – one during the warm anomaly in 2014 and one toward the end of El Nino 2016 – and three cruises during El Ninoneutral years. Results showed no substantial differences in the relationships between vertical carbon export and its presumed drivers (primary production, mesozooplankton grazing) between warm and neutral years. Mesozooplankton fecal pellet enumeration and phaeopigment measurements both showed that fecal pellets were the dominant contributor to export in productive upwelling regions. In more oligotrophic regions, fluxes were dominated by amorphous marine snow with negligible pigment content. We found no evidence for a significant shift in the relationship between mesozooplankton grazing rate and chlorophyll concentration. However, massspecific grazing rates were lower at low-to-moderate chlorophyll concentrations during warm years relative to neutral years. We also detected a significant difference in the relationship between phytoplankton primary production and photosynthetically active radiation between years: at similar irradiance and nutrient concentrations, productivity decreased during the warm events. Whether these changes resulted from species composition changes remains to be determined. Overall, our results suggest that the processes driving export remain similar during different climate conditions, but that species compositional changes or other structural changes require further attention.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1021
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Aluwihare, L.I.; Barbeau, K.A.; Chekalyuk, A.M.; Goericke, R.; Miller, A.J.; Ohman, M.D.; Ruacho, A.; Song, H.; Stephens, B.M.; Landry, M.R.
Title Mesoscale ocean fronts enhance carbon export due to gravitational sinking and subduction Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 114 Issue 6 Pages 1252-1257
Keywords biological carbon pump; carbon cycle; particle flux; particulate organic carbon; plankton
Abstract Enhanced vertical carbon transport (gravitational sinking and subduction) at mesoscale ocean fronts may explain the demonstrated imbalance of new production and sinking particle export in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Based on flux assessments from 238U:234Th disequilibrium and sediment traps, we found 2 to 3 times higher rates of gravitational particle export near a deep-water front (305 mg Cm-2d-1) compared with adjacent water or to mean (nonfrontal) regional conditions. Elevated particle flux at the front was mechanistically linked to Fe-stressed diatoms and high mesozooplankton fecal pellet production. Using a data assimilative regional ocean model fit to measured conditions, we estimate that an additional approximately 225 mg Cm-2d-1 was exported as subduction of particle-rich water at the front, highlighting a transport mechanism that is not captured by sediment traps and is poorly quantified by most models and in situ measurements. Mesoscale fronts may be responsible for over a quarter of total organic carbon sequestration in the California Current and other coastal upwelling ecosystems.
Address Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding PMID:28115723; PMCID:PMC5307443 Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 67
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Benitez-Nelson, C.R.; Decima, M.; Taylor, A.G.; Buchwald, C.; Landry, M.R.
Title The biological pump in the Costa Rica Dome: an open-ocean upwelling system with high new production and low export Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Plankton Research Abbreviated Journal J Plankton Res
Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 348-365
Keywords Eastern Tropical Pacific; biogeochemistry; carbon flux; nutrients; plankton
Abstract The Costa Rica Dome is a picophytoplankton-dominated, open-ocean upwelling system in the Eastern Tropical Pacific that overlies the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone. To investigate the efficiency of the biological pump in this unique area, we used shallow (90-150 m) drifting sediment traps and 234Th:238U deficiency measurements to determine export fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in sinking particles. Simultaneous measurements of nitrate uptake and shallow water nitrification allowed us to assess the equilibrium balance of new and export production over a monthly timescale. While f-ratios (new:total production) were reasonably high (0.36 +/- 0.12, mean +/- standard deviation), export efficiencies were considerably lower. Sediment traps suggested e-ratios (export/14C-primary production) at 90-100 m ranging from 0.053 to 0.067. ThE-ratios (234Th disequilibrium-derived export) ranged from 0.038 to 0.088. C:N and N:P stoichiometries of sinking material were both greater than canonical (Redfield) ratios or measured C:N of suspended particulates, and they increased with depth, suggesting that both nitrogen and phosphorus were preferentially remineralized from sinking particles. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem in which mesozooplankton play a major role in energy transfer to higher trophic levels but are relatively inefficient in mediating vertical carbon flux to depth, leading to an imbalance between new production and sinking flux.
Address Scripps Institution of Oceanography , University of California at San Diego , La Jolla, CA 92037 , USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0142-7873 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding PMID:27275035; PMCID:PMC4889986 Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 90
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Biard, T.; Krause, J.W.; Ohman, M.D.
Title Large Phaeodaria in the twilight zone: Their role in the carbon cycle Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Carbon cycle; Ocean; Twilight zone, Rhizarian measurements; Aulosphaeridae
Abstract Advances in in situ imaging allow enumeration of abundant populations of large Rhizarians that compose a substantial proportion of total mesozooplankton biovolume. Using a quasi-Lagrangian sampling scheme, we quantified the abundance, vertical distributions, and sinking&#8208;related mortality of Aulosphaeridae, an abundant family of Phaeodaria in the California Current Ecosystem. Inter&#8208;cruise variability was high, with average concentrations at the depth of maximum abundance ranging from < 10 to > 300 cells m&#8722;3, with seasonal and interannual variability associated with temperature&#8208;preferences and regional shoaling of the 10°C isotherm. Vertical profiles showed that these organisms were consistently most abundant at 100&#65533;150&#8201;m depth. Average turnover times with respect to sinking were 4.7&#65533;10.9 d, equating to minimum in situ population growth rates of ~ 0.1&#65533;0.2 d&#8722;1. Using simultaneous measurements of sinking organic carbon, we find that these organisms could only meet their carbon demand if their carbon : volume ratio were ~ 1 &#956;g C mm&#8722;3. This value is substantially lower than previously used in global estimates of rhizarian biomass, but is reasonable for organisms that use large siliceous tests to inflate their cross&#8208;sectional area without a concomitant increase in biomass. We found that Aulosphaeridae alone can intercept > 20% of sinking particles produced in the euphotic zone before these particles reach a depth of 300&#8201;m. Our results suggest that the local (and likely global) carbon biomass of Aulosphaeridae, and probably the large Rhizaria overall, needs to be revised downwards, but that these organisms nevertheless play a major role in carbon flux attenuation in the twilight zone.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['yes']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 967
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