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Author Kelly, T.B.; Goericke, R.; Kahru, M.; Song, H.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title CCE II: Spatial and interannual variability in export efficiency and the biological pump in an eastern boundary current upwelling system with substantial lateral advection Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers  
  Volume 140 Issue Pages 14-25  
  Keywords CALIFORNIA CURRENT ECOSYSTEM; OCEAN CARBON-CYCLE; COASTAL WATERS; FRONTAL ZONE; TIME-SERIES; FLUX; SINKING; SEA; PACIFIC; ZOOPLANKTON  
  Abstract Estimating interannual variability in carbon export is a key goal of many marine biogeochemical studies. However, due to variations in export mechanisms between regions, generalized models used to estimate global patterns in export often fail when used for intra-regional analysis. We present here a region-specific model of export production for the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) parameterized using intensive Lagrangian process studies conducted during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm and neutral phases by the CCE Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program. We find that, contrary to expectations from prominent global algorithms, export efficiency (e-ratio = export / primary productivity) is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with net primary productivity (NPP). We attribute these results to the substantial horizontal advection found within the region, and verify this assumption by using a Lagrangian particle tracking model to estimate water mass age. We further suggest that sinking particles in the CCE are comprised of a recently-produced, rapidly-sinking component (likely mesozooplankton fecal pellets) and a longer-lived, slowly-sinking component that is likely advected long distances prior to export. We determine a new algorithm for estimating particle export in the CCE from NPP (Export = 0.08 · NPP + 72 mg C m-2 d-1). We apply this algorithm to a two-decade long time series of NPP in the CCE to estimate spatial and interannual variability across multiple ENSO phases. Reduced export during the warm anomaly of 2014-2015 and El Niño 2015-2016 resulted primarily from decreased export in the coastal upwelling region of the CCE; the oligotrophic offshore region exhibited comparatively low seasonal and interannual variability in flux. The model resolves intra-regional patterns of in situ export measurements, and provides a valuable contrast to global export models.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 984  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kelly, T.B.; Goericke, R.; Kahru, M.; Song, H.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title CCE II: Spatial and interannual variability in export efficiency and the biological pump in an eastern boundary current upwelling system with substantial lateral advection Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers  
  Volume 140 Issue Pages 14-25  
  Keywords california current ecosystem; coastal waters; flux; frontal zone; ocean carbon-cycle; oceanography; pacific; sea; sinking; time-series; Zooplankton  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1022  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Morrow, R.M.; Ohman, M.D.; Goericke, R.; Kelly, T.B.; Stephens, B.M.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Niño Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers Abbreviated Journal Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers  
  Volume 140 Issue Pages 52-62  
  Keywords Carbon export; Fecal pellets; Sinking particles; Interannual variability; Net primary productivity; Eastern boundary upwelling system KeyWords Plus:ZOOPLANKTON FECAL PELLETS; NORTH PACIFIC-OCEAN; CURRENT SYSTEM; SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA; UNDERWATER GLIDERS; CARBON EXPORT; ZONE; CHLOROPHYLL; STABILITY; EQUATIONS  
  Abstract Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014-2015) followed by an El Nino (2015-2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We compare primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from the euphotic zone during quasi-Lagrangian experiments conducted in contrasting conditions: two cruises during warm years – one during the warm anomaly in 2014 and one toward the end of El Nino 2016 – and three cruises during El Ninoneutral years. Results showed no substantial differences in the relationships between vertical carbon export and its presumed drivers (primary production, mesozooplankton grazing) between warm and neutral years. Mesozooplankton fecal pellet enumeration and phaeopigment measurements both showed that fecal pellets were the dominant contributor to export in productive upwelling regions. In more oligotrophic regions, fluxes were dominated by amorphous marine snow with negligible pigment content. We found no evidence for a significant shift in the relationship between mesozooplankton grazing rate and chlorophyll concentration. However, massspecific grazing rates were lower at low-to-moderate chlorophyll concentrations during warm years relative to neutral years. We also detected a significant difference in the relationship between phytoplankton primary production and photosynthetically active radiation between years: at similar irradiance and nutrient concentrations, productivity decreased during the warm events. Whether these changes resulted from species composition changes remains to be determined. Overall, our results suggest that the processes driving export remain similar during different climate conditions, but that species compositional changes or other structural changes require further attention.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 983  
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Author Selph, K.E.; Landry, M.R.; Taylor, A.G.; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A.; Stukel, M.R.; Wokuluk, J.; Pasulka, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Phytoplankton production and taxon-specific growth rates in the Costa Rica Dome Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Plankton Research Abbreviated Journal J Plankton Res  
  Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 199-215  
  Keywords Costa Rica Dome; growth; microzooplankton; mortality; phytoplankton  
  Abstract During summer 2010, we investigated phytoplankton production and growth rates at 19 stations in the eastern tropical Pacific, where winds and strong opposing currents generate the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling feature. Primary production (14C-incorporation) and group-specific growth and net growth rates (two-treatment seawater dilution method) were estimated from samples incubated in situ at eight depths. Our cruise coincided with a mild El Nino event, and only weak upwelling was observed in the CRD. Nevertheless, the highest phytoplankton abundances were found near the dome center. However, mixed-layer growth rates were lowest in the dome center ( approximately 0.5-0.9 day-1), but higher on the edge of the dome ( approximately 0.9-1.0 day-1) and in adjacent coastal waters (0.9-1.3 day-1). We found good agreement between independent methods to estimate growth rates. Mixed-layer growth rates of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were largely balanced by mortality, whereas eukaryotic phytoplankton showed positive net growth ( approximately 0.5-0.6 day-1), that is, growth available to support larger (mesozooplankton) consumer biomass. These are the first group-specific phytoplankton rate estimates in this region, and they demonstrate that integrated primary production is high, exceeding 1 g C m-2 day-1 on average, even during a period of reduced upwelling.  
  Address Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0227, USA; Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0142-7873 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding PMID:27275025; PMCID:PMC4889980 Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 112  
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Kahru, M.; Benitez-Nelson, C.R.; Décima, M.; Goericke, R.; Landry, M.R.; Ohman, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using Lagrangian-based process studies to test satellite algorithms of vertical carbon flux in the eastern North Pacific Ocean Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Oceans  
  Volume 120 Issue 11 Pages 7208-7222  
  Keywords satellite-derived export; carbon export; model algorithms; mesozooplankton grazing; sinking particles; gravitational flux  
  Abstract  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2169-9275 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 113  
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Ohman, M.D.; Kelly, T.B.; Biard, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Roles of Suspension-Feeding and Flux-Feeding Zooplankton as Gatekeepers of Particle Flux Into the Mesopelagic Ocean in the Northeast Pacific Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords biological pump; carbon export; remineralization length scale; mesozooplankton ecology; pteropods; marine biogeochemistry; sinking particles; marine snow  
  Abstract Zooplankton are important consumers of sinking particles in the ocean's twilight zone. However, the impact of different taxa depends on their feeding mode. In contrast to typical suspension-feeding zooplankton, flux-feeding taxa preferentially consume rapidly sinking particles that would otherwise penetrate into the deep ocean. To quantify the potential impact of two flux-feeding zooplankton taxa [Aulosphaeridae (Rhizaria), and Limacina helicina (euthecosome pteropod)] and the total suspension-feeding zooplankton community, we measured depth-stratified abundances of these organisms during six cruises in the California Current Ecosystem. Using allometric-scaling relationships, we computed the percentage of carbon flux intercepted by flux feeders and suspension feeders. These estimates were compared to direct measurements of carbon flux attenuation (CFA) made using drifting sediment traps and U-238-Th-234 disequilibrium. We found that CFA in the shallow twilight zone typically ranged from 500 to 1000 m mol organic C flux remineralized per 10-m vertical depth bin. This equated to approximately 6-10% of carbon flux remineralized/10 m. The two flux-feeding taxa considered in this study could account for a substantial proportion of this flux near the base of the euphotic zone. The mean flux attenuation attributable to Aulosphaeridae was 0.69%/10 m (median = 0.21%/10 m, interquartile range = 0.04-0.81%) at their depth of maximum abundance (similar to 100 m), which would equate to similar to 10% of total flux attenuation in this depth range. The maximum flux attenuation attributable to Aulosphaeridae reached 4.2%/10 m when these protists were most abundant. L. helicina, meanwhile, could intercept 0.45-1.6% of carbon flux/10 m, which was slightly greater (on average) than the Aulosphaeridae. In contrast, suspension-feeding zooplankton in the mesopelagic (including copepods, euphausiids, appendicularians, and ostracods) had combined clearance rates of 2-81 L m(-3) day(-1) (mean of 19.6 L m(-3) day(-1)). This implies a substantial impact on slowly sinking particles, but a negligible impact on the presumably rapidly sinking fecal pellets that comprised the majority of the material collected in sediment traps. Our results highlight the need for a greater research focus on the many taxa that potentially act as flux feeders in the oceanic twilight zone.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1066  
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