Freeman, E., Kent, E. C., Brohan, P., Cram, T., Gates, L., Huang, B., et al. (2019). The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set – Meeting Users Needs and Future Priorities.
Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 435.
Abstract: The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a collection and archive of in situ marine observations, which has been developed over several decades as an international project and recently guided by formal international partnerships and the ICOADS Steering Committee. ICOADS contains observations from many different observing systems encompassing the evolution of measurement technology since the 18th century. ICOADS provides an integrated source of observations for a range of applications including research and climate monitoring, and forms the main marine in situ surface data source, e.g., near-surface ocean observations and lower atmospheric marine-meteorological observations from buoys, ships, coastal stations, and oceanographic sensors, for oceanic and atmospheric research and reanalysis. ICOADS has developed ways to incorporate user and reanalyses feedback information associated with permanent unique identifiers and is also the main repository for data that have been rescued from ships’ logbooks and other marine data digitization activities. ICOADS has been adopted widely because it provides convenient access to a range of observation types, globally, and through the entire marine instrumental record. ICOADS has provided a secure home for such observations for decades. Because of the increased volume of observations, particularly those available in near-real-time, and an expansion of their diversity, the ICOADS processing system now requires extensive modernization. Based on user feedback, we will outline the improvements that are required, the challenges to their implementation, and the benefits of upgrading this important and diverse marine archive and distribution activity.
Smith, S. R., Alory, G., Andersson, A., Asher, W., Baker, A., Berry, D. I., et al. (2019). Ship-Based Contributions to Global Ocean, Weather, and Climate Observing Systems.
Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 434.
Abstract: The role ships play in atmospheric, oceanic, and biogeochemical observations is described with a focus on measurements made near the ocean surface. Ships include merchant and research vessels; cruise liners and ferries; fishing vessels; coast guard, military, and other government-operated ships; yachts; and a growing fleet of automated surface vessels. The present capabilities of ships to measure essential climate/ocean variables and the requirements from a broad community to address operational, commercial, and scientific needs are described. The authors provide a vision to expand observations needed from ships to understand and forecast the exchanges across the ocean–atmosphere interface. The vision addresses (1) recruiting vessels to improve both spatial and temporal sampling, (2) conducting multivariate sampling on ships, (3) raising technology readiness levels of automated shipboard sensors and ship-to-shore data communications, (4) advancing quality evaluation of observations, and (5) developing a unified data management approach for observations and metadata that meet the needs of a diverse user community. Recommendations are made focusing on integrating private and autonomous vessels into the observing system, investing in sensor and communications technology development, developing an integrated data management structure that includes all types of ships, and moving toward a quality evaluation process that will result in a subset of ships being defined as mobile reference ships that will support climate studies. We envision a future where commercial, research, and privately owned vessels are making multivariate observations using a combination of automated and human-observed measurements. All data and metadata will be documented, tracked, evaluated, distributed, and archived to benefit users of marine data. This vision looks at ships as a holistic network, not a set of disparate commercial, research, and/or third-party activities working in isolation, to bring these communities together for the mutual benefit of all.
Worley, S. J., S. D. Woodruff, S. J. Lubker, Z. Ji, E. Freeman, E. C. Kent, P. Brohan, D. I. Berry, S. R. Smith, C. Wilkinson, and R. W. Reynolds. (2010). The Role of the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set in the Sustained Ocean Observing System. In D. D.E. and Stammer Harrison J. Hall (Ed.),
Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2).
Freeman, E., Woodruff, S. D., Worley, S. J., Lubker, S. J., Kent, E. C., Angel, W. E., et al. (2017). ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the historical marine climate record.
Int. J. Climatol., 37(5), 2211–2232.