Freeman, E., Kent, E. C., Brohan, P., Cram, T., Gates, L., Huang, B., et al. (2019). The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set – Meeting Users Needs and Future Priorities.
Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 435.
Abstract: The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a collection and archive of in situ marine observations, which has been developed over several decades as an international project and recently guided by formal international partnerships and the ICOADS Steering Committee. ICOADS contains observations from many different observing systems encompassing the evolution of measurement technology since the 18th century. ICOADS provides an integrated source of observations for a range of applications including research and climate monitoring, and forms the main marine in situ surface data source, e.g., near-surface ocean observations and lower atmospheric marine-meteorological observations from buoys, ships, coastal stations, and oceanographic sensors, for oceanic and atmospheric research and reanalysis. ICOADS has developed ways to incorporate user and reanalyses feedback information associated with permanent unique identifiers and is also the main repository for data that have been rescued from ships’ logbooks and other marine data digitization activities. ICOADS has been adopted widely because it provides convenient access to a range of observation types, globally, and through the entire marine instrumental record. ICOADS has provided a secure home for such observations for decades. Because of the increased volume of observations, particularly those available in near-real-time, and an expansion of their diversity, the ICOADS processing system now requires extensive modernization. Based on user feedback, we will outline the improvements that are required, the challenges to their implementation, and the benefits of upgrading this important and diverse marine archive and distribution activity.
Hu, Z. - Z., Huang, B., Kinter, J. L., Wu, Z., & Kumar, A. (2012). Connection of the stratospheric QBO with global atmospheric general circulation and tropical SST. Part II: interdecadal variations.
Clim Dyn, 38(1-2), 25–43.
Huang, B., Hu, Z. - Z., Kinter, J. L., Wu, Z., & Kumar, A. (2012). Connection of stratospheric QBO with global atmospheric general circulation and tropical SST. Part I: methodology and composite life cycle.
Clim Dyn, 38(1-2), 1–23.
Huang, B., Hu, Z. - Z., Schneider, E. K., Wu, Z., Xue, Y., & Klinger, B. (2012). Influences of tropical-extratropical interaction on the multidecadal AMOC variability in the NCEP climate forecast system.
Clim Dyn, 39(3-4), 531–555.
Kent, E. C., Rayner, N. A., Berry, D. I., Eastman, R., Grigorieva, V. G., Huang, B., et al. (2019). Observing Requirements for Long-Term Climate Records at the Ocean Surface.
Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 441.
Abstract: Observations of conditions at the ocean surface have been made for centuries, contributing to some of the longest instrumental records of climate change. Most prominent is the climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST), which is itself essential to the majority of activities in climate science and climate service provision. A much wider range of surface marine observations is available however, providing a rich source of data on past climate. We present a general error model describing the characteristics of observations used for the construction of climate records, illustrating the importance of multi-variate records with rich metadata for reducing uncertainty in CDRs. We describe the data and metadata requirements for the construction of stable, multi-century marine CDRs for variables important for describing the changing climate: SST, mean sea level pressure, air temperature, humidity, winds, clouds, and waves. Available sources of surface marine data are reviewed in the context of the error model. We outline the need for a range of complementary observations, including very high quality observations at a limited number of locations and also observations that sample more broadly but with greater uncertainty. We describe how high-resolution modern records, particularly those of high-quality, can help to improve the quality of observations throughout the historical record. We recommend the extension of internationally-coordinated data management and curation to observation types that do not have a primary focus of the construction of climate records. Also recommended is reprocessing the existing surface marine climate archive to improve and quantify data and metadata quality and homogeneity. We also recommend the expansion of observations from research vessels and high quality moorings, routine observations from ships and from data and metadata rescue. Other priorities include: field evaluation of sensors; resources for the process of establishing user requirements and determining whether requirements are being met; and research to estimate uncertainty, quantify biases and to improve methods of construction of CDRs. The requirements developed in this paper encompass specific actions involving a variety of stakeholders, including funding agencies, scientists, data managers, observing network operators, satellite agencies, and international co-ordination bodies.
Zhu, J., Huang, B., & Wu, Z. (2012). The Role of Ocean Dynamics in the Interaction between the Atlantic Meridional and Equatorial Modes.
J. Climate, 25(10), 3583–3598.