Banks, R. F., Bourassa, M. A., Hughes, P., O'Brien, J. J., & Smith, S. R. (2006). Variability of surface turbulent fluxes over the Indian Ocean. In
14th Conference on Interactions of the Sea and Atmosphere (cdrom).
Bourassa, M. A., & Hughes, P. J. (2009). Impacts of High Resolution SST Fields on Objective Analyses of Wind Fields, and Practical Constraints Related to Sampling. In
International GHRSST User Symposium, GHRSST (2).
Bourassa, M. A., & Hughes, P. J. (2006).
Computationally fast and accurate surface turbulent fluxes (J. Cote, Ed.). CAS/JSC Working Group on Numerical Experimentation, Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling. World Meteorological Organization.
Bourassa, M. A., Hughes, P. J., & Smith, S. R. (2008). Surface Turbulent Flux Product Comparison.
Flux News, 5, 22–24.
Bourassa, M. A., Smith, S. R., Hughes, P., & Rolph, J. (2006). Atlantic monthly air-sea fluxes and the 2005 hurricanes.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87 (State of the Climate in 2005), 535.
Hughes, P. J. (2014).
The Influence of Small-Scale Sea Surface Temperature Gradients on Surface Vector Winds and Subsequent Impacts on Oceanic Ekman Pumping. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.
Hughes, P. J. (2006).
North Atlantic Decadal Variability of Ocean Surface Fluxes. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: The spatial and temporal variability of the surface turbulent heat fluxes over the North Atlantic is examined using the new objectively produced FSU3 monthly mean 1°x1° gridded wind and surface flux product for 1978-2003. The FSU3 product is constructed from in situ ship and buoy observations via a variational technique. A cost function based on weighted constraints is minimized in the process of determining the surface fluxes. The analysis focuses on a low frequency (basin wide) mode of variability where the latent and sensible heat flux anomalies transition from mainly positive to negative values around 1998. It is hypothesized that the longer time scale variability is linked to changes in the large scale circulation patterns possibly associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO; Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994, Kerr 2000). The changes in the surface heat fluxes are forced by fluctuations in the mean wind speed. Zonal averages show a clear dissimilarity between the turbulent heat fluxes and wind speed for 1982-1997 and 1998-2003 over the region extending from the equator to roughly 40°N. Larger values are associated with the earlier time period, coinciding with a cool phase of the AMO. The separation between the two time periods is much less evident for the humidity and air/sea temperature differences. The largest differences in the latent heat fluxes, between the two time periods, occur over the tropical, Gulf Stream, and higher latitude regions of the North Atlantic, with magnitudes exceeding 15 Wm-2. The largest sensible heat flux differences are limited to areas along the New England coast and poleward of 40°N.
Hughes, P. J., Bourassa, M. A., Rolph, J., & Smith, S. R. (2006).
Interdecadal Variability of Surface Heat Fluxes Over the Atlantic Ocean (J. Cote, Ed.). CAS/JSC Working Group on Numerical Experimentation, Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling. World Meteorological Organization.
Hughes, P. J., Bourassa, M. A., Rolph, J. J., & Smith, S. R. (2012). Averaging-Related Biases in Monthly Latent Heat Fluxes.
J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29(7), 974–986.
Smith, S. R., Bourassa, M. A., Rolph, J., & Hughes, P. (2006).
The FSU fluxes for the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Climate Observation Program 4th Annual System Review, NOAA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.