Lee, C. M., Starkweather, S., Eicken, H., Timmermans, M. - L., Wilkinson, J., Sandven, S., et al. (2019). A Framework for the Development, Design and Implementation of a Sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System.
Front. Mar. Sci., 6.
Dukhovskoy, D. S., Yashayaev, I., Proshutinsky, A., Bamber, J. L., Bashmachnikov, I. L., Chassignet, E. P., et al. (2019). Role of Greenland Freshwater Anomaly in the Recent Freshening of the Subpolar North Atlantic.
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 124(5), 3333–3360.
Abstract: The cumulative Greenland freshwater flux anomaly has exceeded 5000 km3 since the 1990s. The volume of this surplus fresh water is expected to cause substantial freshening in the North Atlantic. Analysis of hydrographic observations in the subpolar seas reveal freshening signals in the 2010s. The sources of this freshening are yet to be determined. In this study, the relationship between the surplus Greenland freshwater flux and this freshening is tested by analyzing the propagation of the Greenland freshwater anomaly and its impact on salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic based on observational data and numerical experiments with and without the Greenland runoff. A passive tracer is continuously released during the simulations at freshwater sources along the coast of Greenland to track the Greenland freshwater anomaly. Tracer budget analysis shows that 44% of the volume of the Greenland freshwater anomaly is retained in the subpolar North Atlantic by the end of the simulation. This volume is sufficient to cause strong freshening in the subpolar seas if it stays in the upper 50�100 m. However, in the model the anomaly is mixed down to several hundred meters of the water column resulting in smaller magnitudes of freshening compared to the observations. Therefore, the simulations suggest that the accelerated Greenland melting would not be sufficient to cause the observed freshening in the subpolar seas and other sources of fresh water have contributed to the freshening. Impacts on salinity in the subpolar seas of the freshwater transport through Fram Strait and precipitation are discussed.
Lindstrom, E. J., M. A. Bourassa, L.-A. Breivik, C. J. Donlon, Lee-Lueng Fu, P. Hacker, G. Lagerloef, T. Lee, C. Le Quere, V. Swail, W. S. Wilson, V. Zlotnicki. (2010). Research Satellite Missions. In D. D.E. and Stammer Harrison J. Hall (Ed.),
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Ilicak, M., Drange, H., Wang, Q., Gerdes, R., Aksenov, Y., Bailey, D., et al. (2016). An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part III: Hydrography and fluxes.
Ocean Modelling, 100, 141–161.
Dukhovskoy, D. S., Myers, P. G., Platov, G., Timmermans, M. - L., Curry, B., Proshutinsky, A., et al. (2016). Greenland freshwater pathways in the sub-Arctic Seas from model experiments with passive tracers.
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121(1), 877–907.