Feng, J., Wu, Z., & Zou, X. (2014). Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies off Baja California: A Possible Precursor of ENSO.
J. Atmos. Sci., 71(5), 1529–1537.
Zhang, M., Wu, Z., & Qiao, F. (2018). Deep Atlantic Ocean Warming Facilitated by the Deep Western Boundary Current and Equatorial Kelvin Waves.
J. Climate, 31(20), 8541–8555.
Abstract: Increased heat storage in deep oceans has been proposed to account for the slowdown of global surface warming since the end of the twentieth century. How the imbalanced heat at the surface has been redistributed to deep oceans remains to be elucidated. Here, the evolution of deep Atlantic Ocean heat storage since 1950 on multidecadal or longer time scales is revealed. The anomalous heat in the deep Labrador Sea was transported southward by the shallower core of the deep western boundary current (DWBC). Upon reaching the equator around 1980, this heat transport route bifurcated into two, with one continuing southward along the DWBC and the other extending eastward along a narrow strip (about 4 degrees width) centered at the equator. In the 1990s and 2000s, meridional diffusion helped to spread warming in the tropics, making the eastward equatorial warming extension have a narrow head and wider tail. The deep Atlantic Ocean warming since 1950 had overlapping variability of approximately 60 years. The results suggest that the current basinwide Atlantic Ocean warming at depths of 1000-2000 m can be traced back to the subsurface warming in the Labrador Sea in the 1950s. An inference from these results is that the increased heat storage in the twenty-first century in the deep Atlantic Ocean is unlikely to partly account for the atmospheric radiative imbalance during the last two decades and to serve as an explanation for the current warming hiatus.
Liu, Y., Tan, Z. - M., & Wu, Z. (2019). Noninstantaneous Wave-CISK for the Interaction between Convective Heating and Low-Level Moisture Convergence in the Tropics.
J. Atmos. Sci., 76(7), 2083–2101.
Abstract: The interaction between tropical convective heating and thermally forced circulation is investigated using a global dry primitive-equation model with the parameterization of wave-conditional instability of the second kind (CISK). It is demonstrated that deep convective heating can hardly sustain itself through the moisture convergence at low levels regardless of the fraction of immediate consumption of converged moisture. In contrast, when the fraction is large, shallow convective heating and its forced circulation exhibit preferred growth of small scales. As the “CISK catastrophe” mainly comes from the instantaneous characters of moisture-convection feedback in the conventional wave-CISK, a noninstantaneous wave-CISK is proposed, which highlights the accumulation-consumption (AC) time scale for the convective heating accumulation and/or the converged moisture consumption. In the new wave-CISK, once moisture is converged, the release of latent heat takes place gradually within an AC time scale. In this sense, convective heating is not only related to the instantaneous moisture convergence at the current time, but also to that which occurred in the past period of the AC time scale. The noninstantaneous wave-CISK could guarantee the occurrence of convective heating and/or moisture convergence at larger scales, and then favor the growth of long waves, and thus solve the problem of CISK catastrophe. With the new wave-CISK and AC time scale of 2 days, the simulated convective heating-driven system bears a large similarity to that of the observed convectively coupled Kelvin wave.
Qian, C., Fu, C., Wu, Z., & Yan, Z. (2009). On the secular change of spring onset at Stockholm.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(12).
Deng, J., Wu, Z., Zhang, M., Huang, N. E., Wang, S., & Qiao, F. (2019). Data concerning statistical relation between obliquity and Dansgaard-Oeschger events.
Data Brief, 23.
Abstract: Data presented are related to the research article entitled “Using Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis to quantify the modulation of Dansgaard-Oeschger events by obliquity” (J. Deng et al., 2018). The datasets in Deng et al. (2018) are analyzed on the foundation of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) (Z.H. Wu and N.E. Huang, 2009), and reveal more occurrences of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events in the decreasing phase of obliquity. Here, we report the number of significant high Shannon entropy (SE) (C.E. Shannon and W. Weaver, 1949) of 95% significance level of DO events in the increasing and decreasing phases of obliquity, respectively. First, the proxy time series are filtered by EEMD to obtain DO events. Then, the time-varying SE of DO modes are calculated on the basis of principle of histogram. The 95% significance level is evaluated through surrogate data (T. Schreiber and A. Schmitz, 1996). Finally, a comparison between the numbers of SE values that are larger than 95% significance level in the increasing and decreasing phases of obliquity, respectively, is reported.