Arrocha, G. (2006).
Variability of Intraseasonal Precipitation Extremes Associated with ENSO in Panama. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Extensive analysis has been conducted over past decades showing the impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on various regions throughout the world. However, these studies have not analyzed data from many stations in Panama, or they have not analyzed long periods of observations. For these reasons, they often miss climatological differences within the region induced by topography, or they do not possess enough observations to adequately study its climatology. Accordingly, the current study focuses on ENSO impacts on precipitation specific to the Isthmus of Panama. Results will be useful for agricultural and water resources planning and Panama Canal operations. Monthly total precipitation data were provided by Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica S.A., which includes 32 stations with records from 1960 to 2004. The year is split into three seasons: two wet seasons (Early and Late Wet), one dry season (Dry). The country is also divided into regions according to similarities in the stations' climatology and geographic locations. Upper and lower precipitation extremes are associated with one of the three ENSO phases (warm, cold or neutral) to estimate their percentages of occurrences. The differences between each ENSO phases' seasonal precipitation distributions are statistically examined. Statistical analyses show effects of ENSO phases that vary by season and geographical region. Cold and warm ENSO years affect the southwestern half of the country considerably during the Late Wet season. Cold ENSO phases tend to increase rainfall, and the warm phase tends to decrease it. The opposite is true for the Caribbean coast. The Dry season experiences drier conditions in warm ENSO years, and the Early Wet season does not show any statistically significant difference between ENSO years' rainfall distributions.
Holbach, H. M., & Bourassa, M. A. (2014). The Effects of Gap-Wind-Induced Vorticity, the Monsoon Trough, and the ITCZ on East Pacific Tropical Cyclogenesis.
Mon. Wea. Rev., 142(3), 1312–1325.
Jones, B. (2004).
Influence of Panamanian Wind Jets on the Southeast Intertropical Convergence Zone. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Gridded QuikSCAT data has been used to show that a strong confluence zone of the Southeast Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (SITCZ) existed in 2000 � 2002 during boreal spring, and the Panama wind jet contributes to its variability. Time series analysis of winds off the Gulf of Panama and convergence advection into the Southern Hemisphere (from 80W to 95W) show these winds kept the SE Trades out of the Northern Hemisphere and created a confluent zone in the Southern Hemisphere. A monthly averaged SITCZ is maintained by the deceleration of the SE Trades that flow from warm water toward the equatorial cold tongue, creating a speed convergent zone south of the equator. Images of wind trajectories show zonally orientated SE Trade winds that were deflected from a divergent zone parallel to the coast of South America converge with more meridional Trades over warm waters. Panamanian winds crossed into the Southern Hemisphere to contribute to this convergence. It is hypothesized that this confluent zone can be intensified by the Panamanian winds. In 2002, the SITCZ confluent zone occurred with more intense Panamanian gap flow than the previous two years. Cross equatorial SE Trades wrapped anti-cyclonically around a divergent pocket in the Northern Hemisphere and became southward winds, which allowed the Panamanian winds to enter the Southern Hemisphere and intensify the SITCZ. Variability in the Panamanian winds makes a substantial contribution to the evolution of the SITCZ.