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Applied Mathematical Modelling, 25(8), 655–670.
Chassignet, E. P., & Xu, X. (2017). Impact of Horizontal Resolution (1/12° to 1/50°) on Gulf Stream Separation, Penetration, and Variability.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47(8), 1999–2021.
Kara, A. B. (2003).
A Fine Resolution Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for the Black Sea with a New Solar Radiation Penetration Scheme. Ph.D. thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Le Sommer, J., Chassignet, E. P., & Wallcraft, A. J. (2018). Ocean Circulation Modeling for Operational Oceanography: Current Status and Future Challenges. In and J. Verron J. Tintoré A. Pascual E. P. Chassignet (Ed.),
New Frontiers in Operational Oceanography (pp. 289–305). Tallahassee, FL: GODAE OceanView.
Abstract: This chapter focuses on ocean circulation models used in operational oceanography, physical oceanography and climate science. Ocean circulation models area particular branch of ocean numerical modeling that focuses on the representation of ocean physical properties over spatial scales ranging from the global scale to less than a kilometer and time scales ranging from hours to decades. As such, they are an essential build-ing block for operational oceanography systems and their design receives a lot of attention from operational and research centers.
Morey, S. L., Zavala-Hidalgo, J., & O'Brien, J. J. (2005). The seasonal variability of continental shelf circulation in the northern and western Gulf of Mexico from a high-resolution numerical model. In W. Sturges, & A. Lugo-Fernandez (Eds.),
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van Sebille, E., Griffies, S. M., Abernathey, R., Adams, T. P., Berloff, P., Biastoch, A., et al. (2018). Lagrangian ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices.
Ocean Modelling, 121, 49–75.
Xu, X., Rhines, P. B., Chassignet, E. P., & Schmitz Jr., W. J. (2015). Spreading of Denmark Strait Overflow Water in the Western Subpolar North Atlantic: Insights from Eddy-Resolving Simulations with a Passive Tracer.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45(12), 2913–2932.
Zhang, M., Wu, Z., & Qiao, F. (2018). Deep Atlantic Ocean Warming Facilitated by the Deep Western Boundary Current and Equatorial Kelvin Waves.
J. Climate, 31(20), 8541–8555.
Abstract: Increased heat storage in deep oceans has been proposed to account for the slowdown of global surface warming since the end of the twentieth century. How the imbalanced heat at the surface has been redistributed to deep oceans remains to be elucidated. Here, the evolution of deep Atlantic Ocean heat storage since 1950 on multidecadal or longer time scales is revealed. The anomalous heat in the deep Labrador Sea was transported southward by the shallower core of the deep western boundary current (DWBC). Upon reaching the equator around 1980, this heat transport route bifurcated into two, with one continuing southward along the DWBC and the other extending eastward along a narrow strip (about 4 degrees width) centered at the equator. In the 1990s and 2000s, meridional diffusion helped to spread warming in the tropics, making the eastward equatorial warming extension have a narrow head and wider tail. The deep Atlantic Ocean warming since 1950 had overlapping variability of approximately 60 years. The results suggest that the current basinwide Atlantic Ocean warming at depths of 1000-2000 m can be traced back to the subsurface warming in the Labrador Sea in the 1950s. An inference from these results is that the increased heat storage in the twenty-first century in the deep Atlantic Ocean is unlikely to partly account for the atmospheric radiative imbalance during the last two decades and to serve as an explanation for the current warming hiatus.
Zou, S., Lozier, M. S., & Xu, X. (2020). Latitudinal Structure of the Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability on Interannual to Decadal Time Scales in the North Atlantic Ocean.
J. Climate, 33(9), 3845–3862.
Abstract: The latitudinal structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the North Atlantic is investigated using numerical results from three ocean circulation simulations over the past four to five decades. We show that AMOC variability south of the Labrador Sea (53°N) to 25°N can be decomposed into a latitudinally coherent component and a gyre-opposing component. The latitudinally coherent component contains both decadal and interannual variabilities. The coherent decadal AMOC variability originates in the subpolar region and is reflected by the zonal density gradient in that basin. It is further shown to be linked to persistent North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) conditions in all three models. The interannual AMOC variability contained in the latitudinally coherent component is shown to be driven by westerlies in the transition region between the subpolar and the subtropical gyre (40°–50°N), through significant responses in Ekman transport. Finally, the gyre-opposing component principally varies on interannual time scales and responds to local wind variability related to the annual NAO. The contribution of these components to the total AMOC variability is latitude-dependent: 1) in the subpolar region, all models show that the latitudinally coherent component dominates AMOC variability on interannual to decadal time scales, with little contribution from the gyre-opposing component, and 2) in the subtropical region, the gyre-opposing component explains a majority of the interannual AMOC variability in two models, while in the other model, the contributions from the coherent and the gyre-opposing components are comparable. These results provide a quantitative decomposition of AMOC variability across latitudes and shed light on the linkage between different AMOC variability components and atmospheric forcing mechanisms.