Proshutinsky, A., Dukhovskoy, D., Timmermans, M. - L., Krishfield, R., & Bamber, J. L. (2015). Arctic circulation regimes.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, 373(2052).
Abstract: Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.
Hughes, P. J. (2006).
North Atlantic Decadal Variability of Ocean Surface Fluxes. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: The spatial and temporal variability of the surface turbulent heat fluxes over the North Atlantic is examined using the new objectively produced FSU3 monthly mean 1°x1° gridded wind and surface flux product for 1978-2003. The FSU3 product is constructed from in situ ship and buoy observations via a variational technique. A cost function based on weighted constraints is minimized in the process of determining the surface fluxes. The analysis focuses on a low frequency (basin wide) mode of variability where the latent and sensible heat flux anomalies transition from mainly positive to negative values around 1998. It is hypothesized that the longer time scale variability is linked to changes in the large scale circulation patterns possibly associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO; Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994, Kerr 2000). The changes in the surface heat fluxes are forced by fluctuations in the mean wind speed. Zonal averages show a clear dissimilarity between the turbulent heat fluxes and wind speed for 1982-1997 and 1998-2003 over the region extending from the equator to roughly 40°N. Larger values are associated with the earlier time period, coinciding with a cool phase of the AMO. The separation between the two time periods is much less evident for the humidity and air/sea temperature differences. The largest differences in the latent heat fluxes, between the two time periods, occur over the tropical, Gulf Stream, and higher latitude regions of the North Atlantic, with magnitudes exceeding 15 Wm-2. The largest sensible heat flux differences are limited to areas along the New England coast and poleward of 40°N.
Brolley, J. M. (2007).
Effects of ENSO, NAO (PVO), and PDO on Monthly Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation. Ph.D. thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Polar Vortex Oscillation (PVO) produce conditions favorable for monthly extreme temperatures and precipitation. These climate modes produce upper-level teleconnection patterns that favor regional droughts, floods, heat waves, and cold spells, and these extremes impact agriculture, energy, forestry, and transportation. The above sectors prefer the knowledge of the worst (and sometimes the best) case scenarios. This study examines the extreme scenarios for each phase and the combination of phases that produce the greatest monthly extremes. Data from Canada, Mexico, and the United States are gathered from the Historical Climatology Network (HCN). Monthly data are simulated by the utilization of a Monte Carlo model. This Monte Carlo method simulates monthly data by the stochastic selection of daily data with identical ENSO, PDO, and PVO (NAO) characteristics. In order to test the quality of the Monte Carlo simulation, the simulations are compared with the observations using only PDO and PVO. It has been found that temperatures and precipitation in the simulation are similar to the model. Statistics tests have favored similarities between simulations and observations in most cases. Daily data are selected in blocks of four to eight days in order to conserve temporal correlation. Because the polar vortex occurs only during the cold season, the PVO is used during January, and the NAO is used during other months. The simulated data are arranged, and the tenth and ninetieth percentiles are analyzed. The magnitudes of temperature and precipitation anomalies are the greatest in the western Canada and the southeastern United States during winter, and these anomalies are located near the Pacific North American (PNA) extrema. Western Canada has its coldest (warmest) Januaries when the PDO and PVO are low (high). The southeastern United States has its coldest Januaries with high PDO and low PVO and warmest Januaries with low PDO and high PVO. Although extremes occur during El Nino or La Nina, many stations have the highest or lowest temperatures during neutral ENSO. In California and the Gulf Coast, the driest (wettest) Januaries tend to occur during low (high) PDO, and the reverse occurs in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. Summertime anomalies, on the other hand, are weak because temperature variance is low. Phase combinations that form the wettest (driest) Julies form spatially incoherent patterns. The magnitudes of the temperature and precipitation anomalies and the corresponding phase combinations vary regionally and seasonally. Composite maps of geopotential heights across North America are plot for low, median, and high temperatures at six selected sites and for low, median, and high precipitation at the same sites. The greatest fluctuations occur near the six sites and over some of the loci of the PNA pattern. Geopotential heights tend to decrease (increase) over the target stations during the cold (warm) cases, and the results for precipitation are variable.
Pantina, P. (2010).
Characterizing the Variability of the Indian Monsoon: Changes in Evaporative Sources for Summertime Rainfall Events. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: This study focuses on the interannual and intraseasonal variability of evaporative sources for rainfall events during the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is an important part of the economy and lifestyle in India, thus, any improvements in our understanding of its mechanisms would be directly beneficial to society. We first discuss the use of evaporative sources for rainfall events as an important tool to help increase our knowledge of the variations of the monsoon. We then outline the variability of the monsoon on an interannual (wet and dry years) and intraseasonal (active and break periods) time scale. We use three reanalyses (NCEP-R2, CFSR, and MERRA) and an IMD gridded rainfall dataset to trace the location and strength of evaporative sources via a quasi-isentropic back trajectory program. The program uses reanalysis winds and evaporation, among other parameters, to estimate these sources back in time. We discuss the differences in parameters between the datasets on a seasonal, interannual, and intraseasonal time scale. We then thoroughly investigate the strength and location of evaporative sources between datasets on interannual and intraseasonal time scales, and we attempt to explain the variations by analyzing the differences in the input parameters and circulation mechanisms themselves. The study finds that the evaporative sources for given interannual or intraseasonal rainfall events do vary in strength and location. Interannually, the strongest change in evaporative source occurs over central India and the Arabian Sea, suggesting that the overall monsoon flow contributes moisture for Indian rainfall on this time scale. Intraseasonally, the strongest change in evaporative source occurs over the Bay of Bengal, suggesting that low pressure systems contribute moisture for Indian rainfall on this time scale. All three reanalyses yield similar fields of evaporative source. We conclude that accurate prediction of the Indian monsoon requires improved understanding of both interannual and intraseasonal oscillations since the sources of moisture for these events are unique.
Strazzo, S. (2011).
Low-Frequency Minimum Temperature Variability Throughout the Southeastern United States during the 1970s: Regime Shift or Phase Coincidence? Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Williams, M. (2010).
Characterizing Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability in the Southeastern United States. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Prior studies of the long-term temperature record in the Southeastern United States (SE US) mostly discuss the long-term cooling trend, and the inter-annual variability produced by the region's strong ties to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). An examination of long-term temperature records in the SE US show clear multi-decadal variations in temperature, with relative warm periods in the 1920's through the mid 1950's and a cool period in the late 1950's through the late 1990's. This substantial shift in multi-decadal variability is not well understood and has not been fully investigated. It appears to account for the long-term downward trend in temperatures. An accurate characterization of this variability could lead to improved interannual and long-term forecasts, which would be useful for agricultural planning, drought mitigation, water management, and preparation for extreme temperature events. Statistical methods are employed to determine the spatial coherence of the observed variability on seasonal time scales. The goal of this study is to characterize the nature of this variability through the analysis of National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) station data in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina. One finding is a shift in the temperature Probability Distribution Function (PDF) between warm regimes and cool regimes.
Danabasoglu, G., Yeager, S. G., Kim, W. M., Behrens, E., Bentsen, M., Bi, D., et al. (2016). North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability.
Ocean Modelling, 97, 65–90.
Zhao, X., Zhou, C., Zhao, W., Tian, J., & Xu, X. (2016). Deepwater overflow observed by three bottom-anchored moorings in the Bashi Channel.
Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 110, 65–74.
Smedstad, O. M., Hurlburt, H. E., Metzger, E. J., Rhodes, R. C., Shriver, J. F., Wallcraft, A. J., et al. (2003). An operational Eddy resolving 1/16° global ocean nowcast/forecast system.
Journal of Marine Systems, 40-41, 341–361.
Morey, S. L., Dukhovskoy, D. S., & Bourassa, M. A. (2009). Connectivity of the Apalachicola River flow variability and the physical and bio-optical oceanic properties of the northern West Florida Shelf.
Continental Shelf Research, 29(9), 1264–1275.