Wallcraft, A. J., Kara, A. B., Hurlburt, H. E., Chassignet, E. P., & Halliwell, G. H. (2008). Value of bulk heat flux parameterizations for ocean SST prediction.
Journal of Marine Systems, 74(1-2), 241–258.
Wei, J., Dirmeyer, P. A., Guo, Z., Zhang, L., & Misra, V. (2010). How Much Do Different Land Models Matter for Climate Simulation? Part I: Climatology and Variability.
J. Climate, 23(11), 3120–3134.
Williams, M. (2010).
Characterizing Multi-Decadal Temperature Variability in the Southeastern United States. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Prior studies of the long-term temperature record in the Southeastern United States (SE US) mostly discuss the long-term cooling trend, and the inter-annual variability produced by the region's strong ties to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). An examination of long-term temperature records in the SE US show clear multi-decadal variations in temperature, with relative warm periods in the 1920's through the mid 1950's and a cool period in the late 1950's through the late 1990's. This substantial shift in multi-decadal variability is not well understood and has not been fully investigated. It appears to account for the long-term downward trend in temperatures. An accurate characterization of this variability could lead to improved interannual and long-term forecasts, which would be useful for agricultural planning, drought mitigation, water management, and preparation for extreme temperature events. Statistical methods are employed to determine the spatial coherence of the observed variability on seasonal time scales. The goal of this study is to characterize the nature of this variability through the analysis of National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) station data in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina. One finding is a shift in the temperature Probability Distribution Function (PDF) between warm regimes and cool regimes.
Xue, W., Xin, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, W., Wu, H., Huang, Z., et al. (2016). Development and Testing of a Multi-model Ensemble Coupling Framework. In
Development and Evaluation of High Resolution Climate System Models (pp. 163–208). Springer.
Yatagai, A., Krishnamurti, T. N., Kumar, V., Mishra, A. K., & Simon, A. (2014). Use of APHRODITE Rain Gauge-Based Precipitation and TRMM 3B43 Products for Improving Asian Monsoon Seasonal Precipitation Forecasts by the Superensemble Method.
J. Climate, 27(3), 1062–1069.
Yin, J., Griffies, S. M., & Stouffer, R. J. (2010). Spatial Variability of Sea Level Rise in Twenty-First Century Projections.
J. Climate, 23(17), 4585–4607.
Yu, L., & Jin, X. (2014). Insights on the OAFlux ocean surface vector wind analysis merged from scatterometers and passive microwave radiometers (1987 onward).
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119(8), 5244–5269.
Zhang, M., Wu, Z., & Qiao, F. (2018). Deep Atlantic Ocean Warming Facilitated by the Deep Western Boundary Current and Equatorial Kelvin Waves.
J. Climate, 31(20), 8541–8555.
Abstract: Increased heat storage in deep oceans has been proposed to account for the slowdown of global surface warming since the end of the twentieth century. How the imbalanced heat at the surface has been redistributed to deep oceans remains to be elucidated. Here, the evolution of deep Atlantic Ocean heat storage since 1950 on multidecadal or longer time scales is revealed. The anomalous heat in the deep Labrador Sea was transported southward by the shallower core of the deep western boundary current (DWBC). Upon reaching the equator around 1980, this heat transport route bifurcated into two, with one continuing southward along the DWBC and the other extending eastward along a narrow strip (about 4 degrees width) centered at the equator. In the 1990s and 2000s, meridional diffusion helped to spread warming in the tropics, making the eastward equatorial warming extension have a narrow head and wider tail. The deep Atlantic Ocean warming since 1950 had overlapping variability of approximately 60 years. The results suggest that the current basinwide Atlantic Ocean warming at depths of 1000-2000 m can be traced back to the subsurface warming in the Labrador Sea in the 1950s. An inference from these results is that the increased heat storage in the twenty-first century in the deep Atlantic Ocean is unlikely to partly account for the atmospheric radiative imbalance during the last two decades and to serve as an explanation for the current warming hiatus.