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|Dukhovskoy, D. S., Ubnoske, J., Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., Hiester, H. R., & Proshutinsky, A. (2015). Skill metrics for evaluation and comparison of sea ice models. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120(9), 5910–5931.|
Dukhovskoy, D. S., Yashayaev, I., Proshutinsky, A., Bamber, J. L., Bashmachnikov, I. L., Chassignet, E. P., et al. (2019). Role of Greenland Freshwater Anomaly in the Recent Freshening of the Subpolar North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 124(5), 3333–3360.
Abstract: The cumulative Greenland freshwater flux anomaly has exceeded 5000 km3 since the 1990s. The volume of this surplus fresh water is expected to cause substantial freshening in the North Atlantic. Analysis of hydrographic observations in the subpolar seas reveal freshening signals in the 2010s. The sources of this freshening are yet to be determined. In this study, the relationship between the surplus Greenland freshwater flux and this freshening is tested by analyzing the propagation of the Greenland freshwater anomaly and its impact on salinity in the subpolar North Atlantic based on observational data and numerical experiments with and without the Greenland runoff. A passive tracer is continuously released during the simulations at freshwater sources along the coast of Greenland to track the Greenland freshwater anomaly. Tracer budget analysis shows that 44% of the volume of the Greenland freshwater anomaly is retained in the subpolar North Atlantic by the end of the simulation. This volume is sufficient to cause strong freshening in the subpolar seas if it stays in the upper 50�100 m. However, in the model the anomaly is mixed down to several hundred meters of the water column resulting in smaller magnitudes of freshening compared to the observations. Therefore, the simulations suggest that the accelerated Greenland melting would not be sufficient to cause the observed freshening in the subpolar seas and other sources of fresh water have contributed to the freshening. Impacts on salinity in the subpolar seas of the freshwater transport through Fram Strait and precipitation are discussed.
Keywords: Greenland ice sheet melting; freshwater anomaly; subpolar North Atlantic; subpolar gyre; passive tracer numerical experiment; freshwater budget
|Gonçalves, R. C., Iskandarani, M., Srinivasan, A., Thacker, W. C., Chassignet, E., & Knio, O. M. (2016). A framework to quantify uncertainty in simulations of oil transport in the ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121(4), 2058–2077.|
|Gouillon, F., Morey, S. L., Dukhovskoy, D. S., & O'Brien, J. J. (2010). Forced tidal response in the Gulf of Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 115(C10).|
|Hackert, E., Ballabrera-Poy, J., Busalacchi, A. J., Zhang, R. - H., & Murtugudde, R. (2011). Impact of sea surface salinity assimilation on coupled forecasts in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 116(C5).|
|Hilburn, K. A. (2003). Development of scatterometer-derived surface pressures for the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C7).|
|Holthuijsen, L. H., Powell, M. D., & Pietrzak, J. D. (2012). Wind and waves in extreme hurricanes. J. Geophys. Res., 117(C9), n/a-n/a.|
Jackson, L. C., Dubois, C., Forget, G., Haines, K., Harrison, M., Iovino, D., et al. (2019). The Mean State and Variability of the North Atlantic Circulation: A Perspective From Ocean Reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 124(12), 8969–9003.
Abstract: The transfer of Indian Ocean thermocline and intermediate waters into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage is generally believed to be primarily accomplished through mesoscale eddy processes, essentially anticyclones known as Agulhas Rings. Here we take advantage of a recent eddy tracking algorithm and Argo float profiles to study the evolution and the thermohaline structure of one of these eddies over the course of 1.5 years (May 2013–November 2014). We found that during this period the ring evolved according to two different phases: During the first one, taking place in winter, the mixing layer in the eddy deepened significantly. During the second phase, the eddy subsided below the upper warmer layer of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre while propagating west. The separation of this eddy from the sea surface could explain the decrease in its surface signature in satellite altimetry maps, suggesting that such changes are not due to eddy dissipation processes. It is a very large eddy (7.1×1013 m3 in volume), extending, after subduction, from a depth of 200–1,200 m and characterized by two mode water cores. The two mode water cores represent the largest eddy heat and salt anomalies when compared with the surrounding. In terms of its impact over 1 year, the north‐westward propagation of this long‐lived anticyclone induces a transport of 2.2 Sv of water, 0.008 PW of heat, and 2.2×105 kg s−1 of salt. These results confirm that Agulhas Rings play a very important role in the Indo‐Atlantic interocean exchange of heat and salt.
|Jia, Y., Calil, P. H. R., Chassignet, E. P., Metzger, E. J., Potemra, J. T., Richards, K. J., et al. (2011). Generation of mesoscale eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. J. Geophys. Res., 116(C11).|
|Kara, A. B. (2003). Mixed layer depth variability over the global ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3).|