Ali, M. M. (2020). Is it high time to use ocean mean temperature for monsoon prediction?
Abstract: A monsoon is a seasonal reversal in the prevailing wind direction, that is usually initiated by the land sea temperature contrast. The Indian summer monsoon, for example, is triggered when the land gets heated up more than the surrounding sea during the summer creating a pressure gradient between the land and the sea. It is well known that the ocean thermal energy required for fueling monsoon circulations comes from the upper layer of the ocean (e.g. Venugopal et al. 2018). But such amount of energy does not come from the top thin layer represented by sea surface temperature (SST) alone. Nevertheless, often SST does not represent the thermal energy available in the upper ocean, although this parameter has been the only oceanographic input to the cyclone and monsoon atmospheric numerical and statistical models.
Ali, M. M., Bhat, G. S., Long, D. G., Bharadwaj, S., & Bourassa, M. A. (2013). Estimating Wind Stress at the Ocean Surface From Scatterometer Observations.
IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 10(5), 1129–1132.
Ali, M. M., Bhowmick, S. A., Sharma, R., Chaudhury, A., Pezzullo, J. C., Bourassa, M. A., et al. (2015). An Artificial Neural Network Model Function (AMF) for SARAL-Altika Winds.
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing, 8(11), 5317–5323.
Ali, M. M., Bourassa, M. A., Bhowmick, S. A., Sharma, R., & Niharika, K. (2016). Retrieval of Wind Stress at the Ocean Surface From AltiKa Measurements.
IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 13(6), 821–825.
Ali, M. M., Nagamani, P. V., Sharma, N., Venu Gopal, R. T., Rajeevan, M., Goni, G. J., et al. (2015). Relationship between ocean mean temperatures and Indian summer monsoon rainfall.
Atmos. Sci. Lett., 16(3), 408–413.
Allende-Arandía, M. E., Zavala-Hidalgo, J., Romero-Centeno, R., Mateos-Jasso, A., Vargas-Hernández, J. M., & Zamudio, L. (2016). Analysis of Ocean Current Observations in the Northern Veracruz Coral Reef System, Mexico: 2007-12.
Journal of Coastal Research, 317, 46–55.
Ansong, J. K., Arbic, B. K., Simmons, H. L., Alford, M. H., Buijsman, M. C., Timko, P. G., et al. (2018). Geographical Distribution of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Parametric Subharmonic Instability in a Global Ocean Circulation Model.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48(6), 1409–1431.
Abstract: The evidence for, baroclinic energetics of, and geographic distribution of parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) arising from both diurnal and semidiurnal tides in a global ocean general circulation model is investigated using 1/12.5° and 1/25° simulations that are forced by both atmospheric analysis fields and the astronomical tidal potential. The paper examines whether PSI occurs in the model, and whether it accounts for a significant fraction of the tidal baroclinic energy loss. Using energy transfer calculations and bispectral analyses, evidence is found for PSI around the critical latitudes of the tides. The intensity of both diurnal and semidiurnal PSI in the simulations is greatest in the upper ocean, consistent with previous results from idealized simulations, and quickly drops off about 5° from the critical latitudes. The sign of energy transfer depends on location; the transfer is positive (from the tides to subharmonic waves) in some locations and negative in others. The net globally integrated energy transfer is positive in all simulations and is 0.5%�10% of the amount of energy required to close the baroclinic energy budget in the model. The net amount of energy transfer is about an order of magnitude larger in the 1/25° semidiurnal simulation than the 1/12.5° one, implying the dependence of the rate of energy transfer on model resolution.
Arbic, B. K., Karsten, R. H., & Garrett, C. (2009). On tidal resonance in the global ocean and the back-effect of coastal tides upon open-ocean tides.
Atmosphere-Ocean, 47(4), 239–266.
Arbic, B. K., Shriver, J. F., Hogan, P. J., Hurlburt, H. E., McClean, J. L., Metzger, E. J., et al. (2009). Estimates of bottom flows and bottom boundary layer dissipation of the oceanic general circulation from global high-resolution models.
J. Geophys. Res., 114(C2).
Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., & Metzger, E. J. (2010). Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model.
Ocean Modelling, 32(3-4), 175–187.