Proshutinsky, A., Dukhovskoy, D., Timmermans, M. - L., Krishfield, R., & Bamber, J. L. (2015). Arctic circulation regimes.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, 373(2052).
Abstract: Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.
Harris, R., Pollman, C., Hutchinson, D., Landing, W., Axelrad, D., Morey, S. L., et al. (2012). A screening model analysis of mercury sources, fate and bioaccumulation in the Gulf of Mexico.
Environ Res, 119, 53–63.
Abstract: A mass balance model of mercury (Hg) cycling and bioaccumulation was applied to the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), coupled with outputs from hydrodynamic and atmospheric Hg deposition models. The dominant overall source of Hg to the Gulf is the Atlantic Ocean. Gulf waters do not mix fully however, resulting in predicted spatial differences in the relative importance of external Hg sources to Hg levels in water, sediments and biota. Direct atmospheric Hg deposition, riverine inputs, and Atlantic inputs were each predicted to be the most important source of Hg to at least one of the modeled regions in the Gulf. While incomplete, mixing of Gulf waters is predicted to be sufficient that fish Hg levels in any given location are affected by Hg entering other regions of the Gulf. This suggests that a Gulf-wide approach is warranted to reduce Hg loading and elevated Hg concentrations currently observed in some fish species. Basic data to characterize Hg concentrations and cycling in the Gulf are lacking but needed to adequately understand the relationship between Hg sources and fish Hg concentrations.
Harris, R., Pollman, C., Landing, W., Evans, D., Axelrad, D., Hutchinson, D., et al. (2012). Mercury in the Gulf of Mexico: sources to receptors.
Environ Res, 119, 42–52.
Abstract: Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) fisheries account for 41% of the U.S. marine recreational fish catch and 16% of the nation's marine commercial fish landings. Mercury (Hg) concentrations are elevated in some fish species in the Gulf, including king mackerel, sharks, and tilefish. All five Gulf states have fish consumption advisories based on Hg. Per-capita fish consumption in the Gulf region is elevated compared to the U.S. national average, and recreational fishers in the region have a potential for greater MeHg exposure due to higher levels of fish consumption. Atmospheric wet Hg deposition is estimated to be higher in the Gulf region compared to most other areas in the U.S., but the largest source of Hg to the Gulf as a whole is the Atlantic Ocean (>90%) via large flows associated with the Loop Current. Redistribution of atmospheric, Atlantic and terrestrial Hg inputs to the Gulf occurs via large scale water circulation patterns, and further work is needed to refine estimates of the relative importance of these Hg sources in terms of contributing to fish Hg levels in different regions of the Gulf. Measurements are needed to better quantify external loads, in-situ concentrations, and fluxes of total Hg and methylmercury in the water column, sediments, and food web.
Powell, M. D., & Cocke, S. (2012). Hurricane wind fields needed to assess risk to offshore wind farms.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 109(33), E2192; author reply E2193–4.
Adams, D. K., McGillicuddy, D. J. J., Zamudio, L., Thurnherr, A. M., Liang, X., Rouxel, O., et al. (2011). Surface-generated mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea products from hydrothermal vents.
Science, 332(6029), 580–583.
Abstract: Atmospheric forcing, which is known to have a strong influence on surface ocean dynamics and production, is typically not considered in studies of the deep sea. Our observations and models demonstrate an unexpected influence of surface-generated mesoscale eddies in the transport of hydrothermal vent efflux and of vent larvae away from the northern East Pacific Rise. Transport by these deep-reaching eddies provides a mechanism for spreading the hydrothermal chemical and heat flux into the deep-ocean interior and for dispersing propagules hundreds of kilometers between isolated and ephemeral communities. Because the eddies interacting with the East Pacific Rise are formed seasonally and are sensitive to phenomena such as El Nino, they have the potential to introduce seasonal to interannual atmospheric variations into the deep sea.
Zeng, H., Chambers, J. Q., Negron-Juarez, R. I., Hurtt, G. C., Baker, D. B., & Powell, M. D. (2009). Impacts of tropical cyclones on U.S. forest tree mortality and carbon flux from 1851 to 2000.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(19), 7888–7892.
Abstract: Tropical cyclones cause extensive tree mortality and damage to forested ecosystems. A number of patterns in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity have been identified. There exist, however, few studies on the dynamic impacts of historical tropical cyclones at a continental scale. Here, we synthesized field measurements, satellite image analyses, and empirical models to evaluate forest and carbon cycle impacts for historical tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2000 over the continental U.S. Results demonstrated an average of 97 million trees affected each year over the entire United States, with a 53-Tg annual biomass loss, and an average carbon release of 25 Tg y(-1). Over the period 1980-1990, released CO(2) potentially offset the carbon sink in forest trees by 9-18% over the entire United States. U.S. forests also experienced twice the impact before 1900 than after 1900 because of more active tropical cyclones and a larger extent of forested areas. Forest impacts were primarily located in Gulf Coast areas, particularly southern Texas and Louisiana and south Florida, while significant impacts also occurred in eastern North Carolina. Results serve as an important baseline for evaluating how potential future changes in hurricane frequency and intensity will impact forest tree mortality and carbon balance.
Jones, W. B., & O'Brien, J. J. (1996). Pseudo-spectral methods and linear instabilities in reaction-diffusion fronts.
Chaos, 6(2), 219–228.
Abstract: We explore the application of a pseudo-spectral Fourier method to a set of reaction-diffusion equations and compare it with a second-order finite difference method. The prototype cubic autocatalytic reaction-diffusion model as discussed by Gray and Scott [Chem. Eng. Sci. 42, 307 (1987)] with a nonequilibrium constraint is adopted. In a spatial resolution study we find that the phase speeds of one-dimensional finite amplitude waves converge more rapidly for the spectral method than for the finite difference method. Furthermore, in two dimensions the symmetry preserving properties of the spectral method are shown to be superior to those of the finite difference method. In studies of plane/axisymmetric nonlinear waves a symmetry breaking linear instability is shown to occur and is one possible route for the formation of patterns from infinitesimal perturbations to finite amplitude waves in this set of reaction-diffusion equations. (c) 1996 American Institute of Physics.
Wu, Z., Chassignet, E. P., Ji, F., & Huang, J. (2014). Reply to 'Spatiotemporal patterns of warming'.
Nature Climate change, 4(10), 846–848.
Ji, F., Wu, Z., Huang, J., & Chassignet, E. P. (2014). Evolution of land surface air temperature trend.
Nature Climate change, 4(6), 462–466.
Misra, V., Mishra, A., Bhardwaj, A., Viswanthan, K., & Schmutz, D. (2018). The potential role of land cover on secular changes of the hydroclimate of Peninsular Florida.
Clim Atmos Sci, 1(1).