Smith, S. R. (2006).
Progress of the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative. Climate Observation Program 4th Annual System Review, NOAA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
Smith, S. R. (2006). A Comparison of SAMOS and Bridge Observations on Research Vessels. In
1st Joint GOSUD SAMOS Workshop, NOAA, Boulder, CO, USA.
Smith, S. R. (2006). Collaboration between Shipboard Oceanic and Atmospheric Data Programs.
EOS, 87, 463,466.
Smith, S. R., Bentamy, A., & Clayson, C. A. (2006). SEAFLUX 3rd Workshop.
Flux News, (2).
Smith, S. R., Bourassa, M. A., Rolph, J., & Hughes, P. (2006).
The FSU fluxes for the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Climate Observation Program 4th Annual System Review, NOAA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
Smith, S. R., Keeley, R., & Delcroix, T. (2006).
Report of the 1st Joint GOSUD/SAMOS Workshop. Boulder, CO, USA: UCAR Joint Office for Science Support.
Taylor, J. P. (2006).
Comparison of ECMWF and Quikscat-Derived Surface Pressure Gradients. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: A technique based solely on QuikSCAT data is developed for determining suspect differences between QSCAT and ECMWF pressure gradients. Pressure fields are computed from scatterometer winds using a variational method that applies a gradient wind conversion. Kinematic analysis of the satellite wind field is performed in order to determine which parameters are physically related to the suspect pressure gradients. It is discovered that the likelihood of these suspect occurrences has the greatest dependence on relative vorticity, total deformation, and the curvature Rossby number. A broad range of these values is tested and a single assessment criterion is derived based upon the value of several skill scores. Overall, the assessment criterion is able to correctly identify the majority of suspect pressure gradients; yet considerable over-flagging does occur in many instances. However, the over-flagging is not random: the false alarms are tightly clustered around the suspect areas, resulting in flagged regions that are too large. Identification of the location of suspect areas in pressure products should be useful to forecasters.
Yu, P. (2006).
Development of New Techniques for Assimilating Satellite Altimetry Data into Ocean Models. Ph.D. thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: State of the art fully three-dimensional ocean models are very computationally expensive and their adjoints are even more resource intensive. However, many features of interest are approximated by the first baroclinic mode over much of the ocean, especially in the lower and mid latitude regions. Based on this dynamical feature, a new type of data assimilation scheme to assimilate sea surface height (SSH) data, a reduced-space adjoint technique, is developed and implemented with a three-dimensional model using vertical normal mode decomposition. The technique is tested with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) configured to simulate the Gulf of Mexico. The assimilation procedure works by minimizing the cost function, which generalizes the misfit between the observations and their counterpart model variables. The “forward” model is integrated for the period during which the data are assimilated. Vertical normal mode decomposition retrieves the first baroclinic mode, and the data misfit between the model outputs and observations is calculated. Adjoint equations based on a one-active-layer reduced gravity model, which approximates the first baroclinic mode, are integrated backward in time to get the gradient of the cost function with respect to the control variables (velocity and SSH of the first baroclinic mode). The gradient is input to an optimization algorithm (the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is used for the cases presented here) to determine the new first baroclinic mode velocity and SSH fields, which are used to update the forward model variables at the initial time. Two main issues in the area of ocean data assimilation are addressed: 1. How can information provided only at the sea surface be transferred dynamically into deep layers? 2. How can information provided only locally, in limited oceanic regions, be horizontally transferred to ocean areas far away from the data-dense regions, but dynamically connected to it? The first problem is solved by the use of vertical normal mode decomposition, through which the vertical dependence of model variables is obtained. Analyses show that the first baroclinic mode SSH represents the full SSH field very closely in the model test domain, with a correlation of 93% in one of the experiments. One common way to solve the second issue is to lengthen the assimilation window in order to allow the dynamic model to propagate information to the data-sparse regions. However, this dramatically increases the computational cost, since many oceanic features move very slowly. An alternative solution to this is developed using a mapping method based on complex empirical orthogonal functions (EOF), which utilizes data from a much longer period than the assimilation cycle and deals with the information in space and time simultaneously. This method is applied to map satellite altimeter data from the ground track observation locations and times onto a regular spatial and temporal grid. Three different experiments are designed for testing the assimilation technique: two experiments assimilate SSH data produced from a model run to evaluate the method, and in the last experiment the technique is applied to TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 altimeter data. The assimilation procedure converges in all experiments and reduces the error in the model fields. Since the adjoint, or “backward”, model is two-dimensional, the method is much more computationally efficient than if it were to use a fully three-dimensional backward model.
Yu, P., Morey, S. L., & O'Brien, J. J. (2006).
Development of new techniques for assimilating satellite altimetry data into ocean models (J. Cote, Ed.). Research Activities in Atmospheric and Ocean Modeling, Report No. 36. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.
Zamudio, L., Hurlburt, H. E., Metzger, E. J., Morey, S. L., O'Brien, J. J., Tilburg, C., et al. (2006). Interannual variability of Tehuantepec eddies.
J. Geophys. Res., 111(C5).