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El Niño refers to a massive warming off the coastal waters of Peru and Ecuador and the Southern Oscillation to the related atmospheric component of this phenomenon, often abbreviated as ENSO. The ocean warming covers a band from 10 degrees N to 10 degrees S and extends more than 90 degrees of longitude. Typically, the warming starts late in the boreal spring or summer and builds to a peak at the end of the year, with the event usually over by the following summer. It is a quasi-periodic phenomenon with global consequences in the form of flooding, droughts, and other phenomena. (TAMU, Glossary of Oceanography and the Related Geosciences with References)

Please visit the ENSO Index According to JMA SSTA page for more information.

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