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Author (up) Cronin, M.F.; Gentemann, C.L.; Edson, J.; Ueki, I.; Bourassa, M.; Brown, S.; Clayson, C.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Farrar, J.T.; Gille, S.T.; Gulev, S.; Josey, S.A.; Kato, S.; Katsumata, M.; Kent, E.; Krug, M.; Minnett, P.J.; Parfitt, R.; Pinker, R.T.; Stackhouse Jr., P.W.; Swart, S.; Tomita, H.; Vandemark, D.; Weller, A.R.; Yoneyama, K.; Yu, L.; Zhang, D.
Title Air-Sea Fluxes With a Focus on Heat and Momentum Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the global, ice-free ocean with breakthrough 1-day random uncertainty of 15 W m–2 and a bias of less than 5 W m–2. At present this accuracy target is met only for OceanSITES reference station moorings and research vessels (RVs) that follow best practices. To meet these targets globally, in the next decade, satellite-based observations must be optimized for boundary layer measurements of air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind stress. In order to tune and validate these satellite measurements, a complementary global in situ flux array, built around an expanded OceanSITES network of time series reference station moorings, is also needed. The array would include 500–1000 measurement platforms, including autonomous surface vehicles, moored and drifting buoys, RVs, the existing OceanSITES network of 22 flux sites, and new OceanSITES expanded in 19 key regions. This array would be globally distributed, with 1–3 measurement platforms in each nominal 10° by 10° box. These improved moisture and temperature profiles and surface data, if assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, would lead to better representation of cloud formation processes, improving state variables and surface radiative and turbulent fluxes from these models. The in situ flux array provides globally distributed measurements and metrics for satellite algorithm development, product validation, and for improving satellite-based, NWP and blended flux products. In addition, some of these flux platforms will also measure direct turbulent fluxes, which can be used to improve algorithms for computation of air-sea exchange of heat and momentum in flux products and models. With these improved air-sea fluxes, the ocean’s influence on the atmosphere will be better quantified and lead to improved long-term weather forecasts, seasonal-interannual-decadal climate predictions, and regional climate projections.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1067
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Author (up) Fairall, C.W., Barnier, B., Berry, D.I, Bourassa, M.A., Bradley, E.F., Clayson, C.A., de Leeuw, G., Drennan, W.M., Gille, S.T., Gulev, S.K., Kent, E.C., McGillis, W.R., Quartly, G.D., Ryabinin, V., Smith, S.R., Weller, R.A., Yelland, M.J. and Zhang, H-M.
Title Observations to Quantify Air-Sea Fluxes and Their Role in Climate Variability and Predictability Type $loc['typeConference Article']
Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, Vol. 2 Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 299-313
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher European Space Agency Place of Publication Editor Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. and Stammer, D. (eds.)
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding NOAA, COD, NASA, NEWS Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 270
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Author (up) Freeman, E.; Kent, E.C.; Brohan, P.; Cram, T.; Gates, L.; Huang, B.; Liu, C.; Smith, S.R.; Worley, S.J.; Zhang, H.-M.
Title The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set – Meeting Users Needs and Future Priorities Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Issue Pages 435
Keywords
Abstract The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) is a collection and archive of in situ marine observations, which has been developed over several decades as an international project and recently guided by formal international partnerships and the ICOADS Steering Committee. ICOADS contains observations from many different observing systems encompassing the evolution of measurement technology since the 18th century. ICOADS provides an integrated source of observations for a range of applications including research and climate monitoring, and forms the main marine in situ surface data source, e.g., near-surface ocean observations and lower atmospheric marine-meteorological observations from buoys, ships, coastal stations, and oceanographic sensors, for oceanic and atmospheric research and reanalysis. ICOADS has developed ways to incorporate user and reanalyses feedback information associated with permanent unique identifiers and is also the main repository for data that have been rescued from ships’ logbooks and other marine data digitization activities. ICOADS has been adopted widely because it provides convenient access to a range of observation types, globally, and through the entire marine instrumental record. ICOADS has provided a secure home for such observations for decades. Because of the increased volume of observations, particularly those available in near-real-time, and an expansion of their diversity, the ICOADS processing system now requires extensive modernization. Based on user feedback, we will outline the improvements that are required, the challenges to their implementation, and the benefits of upgrading this important and diverse marine archive and distribution activity.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1041
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Author (up) Freeman, E.; Woodruff, S.D.; Worley, S.J.; Lubker, S.J.; Kent, E.C.; Angel, W.E.; Berry, D.I.; Brohan, P.; Eastman, R.; Gates, L.; Gloeden, W.; Ji, Z.; Lawrimore, J.; Rayner, N.A.; Rosenhagen, G.; Smith, S.R.
Title ICOADS Release 3.0: a major update to the historical marine climate record Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Climatology Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Climatol.
Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 2211-2232
Keywords marine meteorological data; ship data; buoy data; sea-surface temperature; sea-level pressure; humidity; metadata; ocean
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0899-8418 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 20
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Author (up) Kent, E.C.; Berry, D.I.; Prytherch, J.; Roberts, J.B.
Title A comparison of global marine surface-specific humidity datasets fromin situobservations and atmospheric reanalysis Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Climatology Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Climatol.
Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 355-376
Keywords marine climatology; atmospheric reanalysis; surface humidity; air� sea interaction; observations; specific humidity
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0899-8418 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 164
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Author (up) Kent, E.C.; Rayner, N.A.; Berry, D.I.; Eastman, R.; Grigorieva, V.G.; Huang, B.; Kennedy, J.J.; Smith, S.R.; Willett, K.M.
Title Observing Requirements for Long-Term Climate Records at the Ocean Surface Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Issue Pages 441
Keywords
Abstract Observations of conditions at the ocean surface have been made for centuries, contributing to some of the longest instrumental records of climate change. Most prominent is the climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST), which is itself essential to the majority of activities in climate science and climate service provision. A much wider range of surface marine observations is available however, providing a rich source of data on past climate. We present a general error model describing the characteristics of observations used for the construction of climate records, illustrating the importance of multi-variate records with rich metadata for reducing uncertainty in CDRs. We describe the data and metadata requirements for the construction of stable, multi-century marine CDRs for variables important for describing the changing climate: SST, mean sea level pressure, air temperature, humidity, winds, clouds, and waves. Available sources of surface marine data are reviewed in the context of the error model. We outline the need for a range of complementary observations, including very high quality observations at a limited number of locations and also observations that sample more broadly but with greater uncertainty. We describe how high-resolution modern records, particularly those of high-quality, can help to improve the quality of observations throughout the historical record. We recommend the extension of internationally-coordinated data management and curation to observation types that do not have a primary focus of the construction of climate records. Also recommended is reprocessing the existing surface marine climate archive to improve and quantify data and metadata quality and homogeneity. We also recommend the expansion of observations from research vessels and high quality moorings, routine observations from ships and from data and metadata rescue. Other priorities include: field evaluation of sensors; resources for the process of establishing user requirements and determining whether requirements are being met; and research to estimate uncertainty, quantify biases and to improve methods of construction of CDRs. The requirements developed in this paper encompass specific actions involving a variety of stakeholders, including funding agencies, scientists, data managers, observing network operators, satellite agencies, and international co-ordination bodies.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1040
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Author (up) Smith, S. R., J. T. Rettig, J. Rolph, J. Hu, E. C. Kent, E. Schulz, R. Verein, S. Rutz, and C. Paver
Title The Data Management System for the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative Type $loc['typeConference Article']
Year 2010 Publication Proceedings of OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Hall, J.; Harrison, D.E.; Stammer, D.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 558
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Author (up) Smith, S. R.; Kent, E. C.; Cook, S. K.
Title Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative Type $loc['typeReport']
Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Meteorological Organization Place of Publication Brest, France Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title 3rd Session of the JCOMM Ship Observation Team Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 899
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Author (up) Smith, S.R.; Alory, G.; Andersson, A.; Asher, W.; Baker, A.; Berry, D.I.; Drushka, K.; Figurskey, D.; Freeman, E.; Holthus, P.; Jickells, T.; Kleta, H.; Kent, E.C.; Kolodziejczyk, N.; Kramp, M.; Loh, Z.; Poli, P.; Schuster, U.; Steventon, E.; Swart, S.; Tarasova, O.; de la Villéon, L.P.; Vinogradova-Shiffer, N.
Title Ship-Based Contributions to Global Ocean, Weather, and Climate Observing Systems Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Issue Pages 434
Keywords
Abstract The role ships play in atmospheric, oceanic, and biogeochemical observations is described with a focus on measurements made near the ocean surface. Ships include merchant and research vessels; cruise liners and ferries; fishing vessels; coast guard, military, and other government-operated ships; yachts; and a growing fleet of automated surface vessels. The present capabilities of ships to measure essential climate/ocean variables and the requirements from a broad community to address operational, commercial, and scientific needs are described. The authors provide a vision to expand observations needed from ships to understand and forecast the exchanges across the ocean–atmosphere interface. The vision addresses (1) recruiting vessels to improve both spatial and temporal sampling, (2) conducting multivariate sampling on ships, (3) raising technology readiness levels of automated shipboard sensors and ship-to-shore data communications, (4) advancing quality evaluation of observations, and (5) developing a unified data management approach for observations and metadata that meet the needs of a diverse user community. Recommendations are made focusing on integrating private and autonomous vessels into the observing system, investing in sensor and communications technology development, developing an integrated data management structure that includes all types of ships, and moving toward a quality evaluation process that will result in a subset of ships being defined as mobile reference ships that will support climate studies. We envision a future where commercial, research, and privately owned vessels are making multivariate observations using a combination of automated and human-observed measurements. All data and metadata will be documented, tracked, evaluated, distributed, and archived to benefit users of marine data. This vision looks at ships as a holistic network, not a set of disparate commercial, research, and/or third-party activities working in isolation, to bring these communities together for the mutual benefit of all.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1039
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Author (up) Woodruff, S.D.; Worley, S.J.; Lubker, S.J.; Ji, Z.; Eric Freeman, J.; Berry, D.I.; Brohan, P.; Kent, E.C.; Reynolds, R.W.; Smith, S.R.; Wilkinson, C.
Title ICOADS Release 2.5: extensions and enhancements to the surface marine meteorological archive Type $loc['typeConference Article']
Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Climatology Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Climatol.
Volume 31 Issue 7 Pages 951-967
Keywords marine meteorological data; ship data; buoy data; data rescue; sea surface temperature; sea level pressure; humidity; metadata
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0899-8418 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 304
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