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Author Ali, M.; Singh, N.; Kumar, M.; Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M.; Kishtawal, C.; Rao, C.
Title Dominant Modes of Upper Ocean Heat Content in the North Indian Ocean Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Climate Abbreviated Journal Climate
Volume 6 Issue 3 Pages 71
Keywords ocean heat content; tropical cyclone heat potential; dominant modes; North Indian Ocean; SUMMER MONSOON; INTENSIFICATION; INTENSITY; PACIFIC
Abstract The thermal energy needed for the development of hurricanes and monsoons as well as any prolonged marine weather event comes from layers in the upper oceans, not just from the thin layer represented by sea surface temperature alone. Ocean layers have different modes of thermal energy variability because of the different time scales of ocean-atmosphere interaction. Although many previous studies have focused on the influence of upper ocean heat content (OHC) on tropical cyclones and monsoons, no study thus farparticularly in the North Indian Ocean (NIO)has specifically concluded the types of dominant modes in different layers of the ocean. In this study, we examined the dominant modes of variability of OHC of seven layers in the NIO during 1998-2014. We conclude that the thermal variability in the top 50 m of the ocean had statistically significant semiannual and annual modes of variability, while the deeper layers had the annual mode alone. Time series of OHC for the top four layers were analyzed separately for the NIO, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal. For the surface to 50 m layer, the lowest and the highest values of OHC were present in January and May every year, respectively, which was mainly caused by the solar radiation cycle.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2225-1154 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 986
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Author Ali, M.; Singh, N.; Kumar, M.; Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M.; Kishtawal, C.; Rao, C.
Title Dominant Modes of Upper Ocean Heat Content in the North Indian Ocean Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2019 Publication Climate Abbreviated Journal Climate
Volume 6 Issue 71 Pages 1 – 8
Keywords
Abstract The thermal energy needed for the development of hurricanes and monsoons as well as any prolonged marine weather event comes from layers in the upper oceans, not just from the thin layer represented by sea surface temperature alone. Ocean layers have different modes of thermal energy variability because of the different time scales of ocean–atmosphere interaction. Although many previous studies have focused on the influence of upper ocean heat content (OHC) on tropical cyclones and monsoons, no study thus far—particularly in the North Indian Ocean (NIO)—has specifically concluded the types of dominant modes in different layers of the ocean. In this study, we examined the dominant modes of variability of OHC of seven layers in the NIO during 1998–2014. We conclude that the thermal variability in the top 50 m of the ocean had statistically significant semiannual and annual modes of variability, while the deeper layers had the annual mode alone. Time series of OHC for the top four layers were analyzed separately for the NIO, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal. For the surface to 50 m layer, the lowest and the highest values of OHC were present in January and May every year, respectively, which was mainly caused by the solar radiation cycle.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2225-1154 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1030
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Author Liu, M.; Lin, J.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zheng, B.; Shao, J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, J.; Fu, T.-M.; Yan, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Wu, Z.
Title Spatiotemporal variability of NO2 and PM2.5 over Eastern China: observational and model analyses with a novel statistical method Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Chem. Phys.
Volume 18 Issue 17 Pages 12933-12952
Keywords TROPOSPHERIC NITROGEN-DIOXIDE; PROVINCIAL CAPITAL CITIES; CRITERIA AIR-POLLUTANTS; BOUNDARY-LAYER; NORTH CHINA; HILBERT SPECTRUM; UNITED-STATES; TIME-SERIES; OZONE; EMISSIONS
Abstract Eastern China (27-41 degrees N, 110-123 degrees E) is heavily polluted by nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), and other air pollutants. These pollutants vary on a variety of temporal and spatial scales, with many temporal scales that are nonperiodic and nonstationary, challenging proper quantitative characterization and visualization. This study uses a newly compiled EOF-EEMD analysis visualization package to evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of ground-level NO2, PM2.5, and their associations with meteorological processes over Eastern China in fall-winter 2013. Applying the package to observed hourly pollutant data reveals a primary spatial pattern representing Eastern China synchronous variation in time, which is dominated by diurnal variability with a much weaker day-to-day signal. A secondary spatial mode, representing north-south opposing changes in time with no constant period, is characterized by wind-related dilution or a buildup of pollutants from one day to another.

We further evaluate simulations of nested GEOS-Chem v9-02 and WRF/CMAQ v5.0.1 in capturing the spatiotemporal variability of pollutants. GEOS-Chem underestimates NO2 by about 17 mu g m(-3) and PM2.5 by 35 mu g m(-3 )on average over fall-winter 2013. It reproduces the diurnal variability for both pollutants. For the day-to-day variation, GEOS-Chem reproduces the observed north-south contrasting mode for both pollutants but not the Eastern China synchronous mode (especially for NO2). The model errors are due to a first model layer too thick (about 130 m) to capture the near-surface vertical gradient, deficiencies in the nighttime nitrogen chemistry in the first layer, and missing secondary organic aerosols and anthropogenic dust. CMAQ overestimates the diurnal cycle of pollutants due to too-weak boundary layer mixing, especially in the nighttime, and overestimates NO2 by about 30 mu g m(-3) and PM2.5 by 60 mu g m(-3). For the day-to-day variability, CMAQ reproduces the observed Eastern China synchronous mode but not the north-south opposing mode of NO2. Both models capture the day-to-day variability of PM2.5 better than that of NO2. These results shed light on model improvement. The EOF-EEMD package is freely available for noncommercial uses.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1680-7324 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 946
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Author Venugopal, T.; Ali, M.M.; Bourassa, M.A.; Zheng, Y.; Goni, G.J.; Foltz, G.R.; Rajeevan, M.
Title Statistical Evidence for the Role of Southwestern Indian Ocean Heat Content in the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2018 Publication SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 12092
Keywords SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE; EL-NINO; EQUATORIAL PACIFIC; IMPACT; PREDICTION; ENSO; DIPOLE; REGION; SST
Abstract This study examines the benefit of using Ocean Mean Temperature (OMT) to aid in the prediction of the sign of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) anomalies. This is a statistical examination, rather than a process study. The thermal energy needed for maintaining and intensifying hurricanes and monsoons comes from the upper ocean, not just from the thin layer represented by sea surface temperature (SST) alone. Here, we show that the southwestern Indian OMT down to the depth of the 26 degrees C isotherm during January-March is a better qualitative predictor of the ISMR than SST. The success rate in predicting above- or below-average ISMR is 80% for OMT compared to 60% for SST. Other January-March mean climate indices (e.g., NINO3.4, Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, El Nino Southern Oscillation Modoki Index) have less predictability (52%, 48%, and 56%, respectively) than OMT percentage deviation (PD) (80%). Thus, OMT PD in the southwestern Indian Ocean provides a better qualitative prediction of ISMR by the end of March and indicates whether the ISMR will be above or below the climatological mean value.
Address Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, New Delhi, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding strtoupper('3').strtolower('0108244'); strtoupper('P').strtolower('MC6092415') Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 972
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Author Zheng, Y.; Ali, M.M.; Bourassa, M.A.
Title Contribution of Monthly and Regional Rainfall to the Strength of Indian Summer Monsoon Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Weather Review Abbreviated Journal Mon. Wea. Rev.
Volume 144 Issue 9 Pages 3037-3055
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-0644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 60
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M. A.; Dukhovskoy, D. S.
Title Upper-Ocean Processes Controlling the Sea Surface Temperature in the Western Gulf of Mexico Type $loc['typeAbstract']
Year 2018 Publication American Geophysical Union Abbreviated Journal AGU
Volume Fall Meeting Issue Pages
Keywords 4299 General or miscellaneous, OCEANOGRAPHY: GENERAL
Abstract This study examines the upper-ocean processes controlling the mixed layer temperature in the western Gulf of Mexico (GOM) through estimating the contributing terms in the heat equation, with an emphasis on eddies' role. The major heat contributing terms for the upper GOM were estimated using two ocean reanalysis datasets: an eddy-resolving HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and a Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Analysis of net surface heat fluxes from four datasets reveals that the long-term mean net surface heat flux cools the northern GOM and warms the southern GOM. Two regions are focused for analysis: an eddy-rich region where LCEs are energetic, and the southwestern Gulf where eddy activity is relatively weak and the features of near surface temperature differ from the eddy-rich region. An eddy-rich region in the western GOM is defined based on the eddy kinetic energy derived from satellite sea surface heights. The long-term mean horizontal heat advection causes a weak warming over most of the eddy rich region, partly attributed to the flow-temperature configuration that the long-term and seasonally mean flow is nearly parallel to the corresponding mean isotherms. By contrast, the temporal mean vertical heat advection causes a strong warming in the eddy rich region, partly balancing the cooling caused by net surface heat flux. The temporal mean eddy heat flux convergence in the western GOM, whose positive and negative values are not small at some locations, appears heterogeneous in space, resulting in a small term for the western GOM when area averaged. The persistent warm water in the southwestern Gulf is primarily caused by the net warming from net surface heat flux rather than from eddies and heat advection.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1007
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Author Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M.A.; Ali, M.M.; Krishnamurti, T.N.
Title Distinctive features of rainfall over the Indian homogeneous rainfall regions between strong and weak Indian summer monsoons Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.
Volume 121 Issue 10 Pages 5631-5647
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2169897X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 61
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zheng, Y.; Bourassa, M.A.; Hughes, P.
Title Influences of Sea Surface Temperature Gradients and Surface Roughness Changes on the Motion of Surface Oil: A Simple Idealized Study Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology Abbreviated Journal J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.
Volume 52 Issue 7 Pages 1561-1575
Keywords Air-sea interaction; Boundary conditions; Diagnostics; Local effects; Societal impacts; Wind effects
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1558-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding GoMRI, OVWST Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 229
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zheng, Y.; Lin, J.-L.; Shinoda, T.
Title The equatorial Pacific cold tongue simulated by IPCC AR4 coupled GCMs: Upper ocean heat budget and feedback analysis Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.
Volume 117 Issue C5 Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 250
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zheng, Y.; Shinoda, T.; Lin, J.-L.; Kiladis, G.N.
Title Sea Surface Temperature Biases under the Stratus Cloud Deck in the Southeast Pacific Ocean in 19 IPCC AR4 Coupled General Circulation Models Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Climate Abbreviated Journal J. Climate
Volume 24 Issue 15 Pages 4139-4164
Keywords
Abstract
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0894-8755 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Funding Approved $loc['no']
Call Number COAPS @ mfield @ Serial 297
Permanent link to this record

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