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|Yin, J., Griffies, S. M., & Stouffer, R. J. (2010). Spatial Variability of Sea Level Rise in Twenty-First Century Projections. J. Climate, 23(17), 4585–4607.|
|Misra, V., & Dirmeyer, P. A. (2009). Air, Sea, and Land Interactions of the Continental U.S. Hydroclimate. J. Hydrometeor, 10(2), 353–373.|
|Hart, R. E., Maue, R. N., & Watson, M. C. (2007). Estimating Local Memory of Tropical Cyclones through MPI Anomaly Evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135(12), 3990–4005.|
Misra, V., & Bhardwaj, A. (2019). Defining the Northeast Monsoon of India. Mon. Wea. Rev., 147(3), 791–807.
Abstract: This study introduces an objective definition for onset and demise of the Northeast Indian Monsoon (NEM). The definition is based on the land surface temperature analysis over the Indian subcontinent. It is diagnosed from the inflection points in the daily anomaly cumulative curve of the area-averaged surface temperature over the provinces of Andhra Pradesh, Rayalseema, and Tamil Nadu located in the southeastern part of India. Per this definition, the climatological onset and demise dates of the NEM season are 6 November and 13 March, respectively. The composite evolution of the seasonal cycle of 850hPa winds, surface wind stress, surface ocean currents, and upper ocean heat content suggest a seasonal shift around the time of the diagnosed onset and demise dates of the NEM season. The interannual variations indicate onset date variations have a larger impact than demise date variations on the seasonal length, seasonal anomalies of rainfall, and surface temperature of the NEM. Furthermore, it is shown that warm El Niño�Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes are associated with excess seasonal rainfall, warm seasonal land surface temperature anomalies, and reduced lengths of the NEM season. Likewise, cold ENSO episodes are likely to be related to seasonal deficit rainfall anomalies, cold land surface temperature anomalies, and increased lengths of the NEM season.
Holbach, H. M., Uhlhorn, E. W., & Bourassa, M. A. (2018). Off-Nadir SFMR Brightness Temperature Measurements in High-Wind Conditions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 35(9), 1865–1879.
Abstract: Wind and wave-breaking directions are investigated as potential sources of an asymmetry identified in off-nadir remotely sensed measurements of ocean surface brightness temperatures obtained by the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) in high-wind conditions, including in tropical cyclones. Surface wind speed, which dynamically couples the atmosphere and ocean, can be inferred from SFMR ocean surface brightness temperature measurements using a radiative transfer model and an inversion algorithm. The accuracy of the ocean surface brightness temperature to wind speed calibration relies on accurate knowledge of the surface variables that are influencing the ocean surface brightness temperature. Previous studies have identified wind direction signals in horizontally polarized radiometer measurements in low to moderate (0�20 m s−1) wind conditions over a wide range of incidence angles. This study finds that the azimuthal asymmetry in the off-nadir SFMR brightness temperature measurements is also likely a function of wind direction and extends the results of these previous studies to high-wind conditions. The off-nadir measurements from the SFMR provide critical data for improving the understanding of the relationships between brightness temperature, surface wave�breaking direction, and surface wind vectors at various incidence angles, which is extremely useful for the development of geophysical model functions for instruments like the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD).
Keywords: Tropical cyclones; Wind; Air-sea interaction; Microwave observations; Remote sensing; Surface observations
Steffen, J., & Bourassa, M. (2018). Barrier Layer Development Local to Tropical Cyclones based on Argo Float Observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48(9), 1951–1968.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to quantify barrier layer development due to tropical cyclone (TC) passage using Argo float observations of temperature and salinity. To accomplish this objective, a climatology of Argo float measurements is developed from 2001 to 2014 for the Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and central Pacific basins. Each Argo float sample consists of a prestorm and poststorm temperature and salinity profile pair. In addition, a no-TC Argo pair dataset is derived for comparison to account for natural ocean state variability and instrument sensitivity. The Atlantic basin shows a statistically significant increase in barrier layer thickness (BLT) and barrier layer potential energy (BLPE) that is largely attributable to an increase of 2.6 m in the post-TC isothermal layer depth (ITLD). The eastern Pacific basin shows no significant changes to any barrier layer characteristic, likely due to a shallow and highly stratified pycnocline. However, the near-surface layer freshens in the upper 30 m after TC passage, which increases static stability. Finally, the central Pacific has a statistically significant freshening in the upper 20-30 m that increases upper-ocean stratification by similar to 35%. The mechanisms responsible for increases in BLPE vary between the Atlantic and both Pacific basins; the Atlantic is sensitive to ITLD deepening, while the Pacific basins show near-surface freshening to be more important in barrier layer development. In addition, Argo data subsets are used to investigate the physical relationships between the barrier layer and TC intensity, TC translation speed, radial distance from TC center, and time after TC passage.
Keywords: SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURE; UPPER-OCEAN RESPONSE; NINO SOUTHERN-OSCILLATION; MIXED-LAYER; INDIAN-OCEAN; HEAT-BUDGET; NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS; HURRICANES; VARIABILITY; PACIFIC
|Bourassa, M. A., & Weissman, D. E. (2003). The development and application of a sea surface stress model function for the QuikSCAT and ADEOS-II SeaWinds scatterometers. In IEEE International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS) (pp. 239–241).|
|Nyadjro, E. S., Jensen, T. G., Richman, J. G., & Shriver, J. F. (2017). On the Relationship Between Wind, SST, and the Thermocline in the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 14(12), 2315–2319.|
|Nyadjro, E. S., Subrahmanyam, B., Murty, V. S. N., & Shriver, J. F. (2012). The role of salinity on the dynamics of the Arabian Sea mini warm pool. J. Geophys. Res., 117(C9), n/a-n/a.|
|Xu, X., Schmitz Jr., W. J., Hurlburt, H. E., Hogan, P. J., & Chassignet, E. P. (2010). Transport of Nordic Seas overflow water into and within the Irminger Sea: An eddy-resolving simulation and observations. J. Geophys. Res., 115(C12).|