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Author Krishnamurti, T. N.; Karmakar, Nirupam; Misra, Vasubandhu; Nag, Bappaditya; Sahu, Dipak; Dubey, Sarvesh; Haddad, Ziad url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association between upper level diffluence in the Tropical Easterly Jet and the formation of the strongest Atlantic hurricanes in recent years Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2018 Publication Proceedings of SPIE Abbreviated Journal SPIE  
  Volume 10782 Issue Pages 10  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In this paper we report the evidence of the potential role of diffluence in the 200hPa wind field off the coast of West Africa in the formation of a significant number of Category 4 and Category 5 hurricanes in the recent decade. It is shown that more than 80% cases of hurricanes at Category 4 and above is preceded by upper level diffluence in the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) by 0{5 days. This TEJ is the outflow from the southern flank of the Tibetan anticyclone from the Asian monsoon region.  
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  Call Number COAPS @ rl18 @ Serial 1000  
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Author Xiaobiao Xu, Eric Chassignet url  openurl
  Title Subpolar-Subtropical Connectivity of the North Atlantic Circulation Type $loc['typeMiscellaneous']
  Year 2019 Publication PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Warming, hydrographic, subtropical gyres, sub-basins, passive tracers  
  Abstract The ocean, through its large capacity to store heat, plays a critical role in Earth's climate and climate variability. Warming of the world's oceans since 1955 accounts for approximately 93% of the warming of the Earth system. However, this warming is neither spatially uniform nor temporally constant. Superimposed on the global long-term trend is climate variability on inter-annual to inter-decadal time scales and regional to basin scales. Satellite altimeters and hydrographic observations show that the North Atlantic, including the sub-polar region, has rapidly become warmer and saltier since the early 1990s. An emerging picture is that the most recent 20 years or so of warming in the North Atlantic represents, in part, a transition of the Atlantic multi-decadal variability pattern from a cold to a warm phase. These decadal climate transitions involve changes both laterally in the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyres of the North Atlantic and vertically in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a key component of the global heat and freshwater circulation system. This study of the North Atlantic circulation concentrates on a transition region around the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, where the effects of boundary currents and jets, recirculations, and mesoscale eddies (length scales typically less than 100 km) are dominant. Strong interactions occur in this transition region, laterally between the subpolar and subtropical gyres and vertically between the cold and warm limbs of the Atlantic Meridional Circulation (AMOC). There is evidence that this relatively compact region plays a key role in altering and even modulating the AMOC over a much larger scale and thus is important for the long-term, decadal variability of the Atlantic Ocean. Yet, despite many observational field programs, the dynamics and impacts of this region are not well understood. The project will contribute to understanding the variability of the AMOC by addressing the connectivity of the sub-polar and the sub-tropical gyres. The results of this model-data synthesis will be of particular significance to coupled climate models, which are central to understanding and predicting global climate change. The educational/outreach components of this project will be focused on cultivating scientific literacy with regards to ocean climate research in K-12 schools, at the university level, and in the local community through a variety of online resources/interactive tools for educators, the Florida State University Young Scholars program for high school students, and the “Scientists in the Schools” program. Finally, the requested funding will support a junior faculty member and a graduate student who will be trained in ocean modeling, data analysis and interpretation.

Through ongoing major observation programs in the sub-polar and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean, oceanographers are making great strides toward a better understanding of the structure and variability of the AMOC within these sub-basins. The work proposed here complements these observations by focusing on key questions pertaining to what controls the circulation in between and how much the sub-polar to sub-tropical connectivity modulates the larger scale AMOC. This project aims to elucidate the physical dynamics that controls circulation in the transition region, especially the relative importance of the eddies and the deep western boundary current, and document the role and impact of the transition region on the larger scale circulation, especially the variability of the AMOC and water properties in the sub-polar and sub-tropical North Atlantic from inter-annual to decadal and longer time scales. The interaction of eddies and time mean circulations represents one of the greatest challenges to prediction of global climate variability, and it can be studied with the fine-grid resolution model included in this project. These objectives will be met by performing a detailed model-data synthesis study, combining numerical results from a suite of high-resolution Atlantic simulations using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and existing observations (satellite altimetry, drifters/floats, hydrography, tracers, and mooring arrays). The three-dimensional Atlantic circulation will be quantified by performing analysis of water mass transport and transformation, passive tracers, and potential vorticity and momentum fluxes. It has been demonstrated that the eddy-resolving HYCOM represents the basic circulation features in the transition region and larger scale North Atlantic Ocean, including both time mean structure and temporal variability.
 
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  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1018  
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Author Zhao, X.; Zhou, C.; Xu, X.; Ye, R.; Tian, J.; Zhao, W. url  openurl
  Title Deep Circulation in the South China Sea Simulated in a Regional Model Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Ocean Sci. Discuss Abbreviated Journal Ocean Sci. Discuss  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Sea Marine, Oceanography/CIMST, PacificOcean, continuous current-meter, deep circulation, deep western boundary  
  Abstract The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, deep circulation in the SCS is investigated using results from eddy-resolving, regional simulations using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) verified by continuous current-meter observations. Analysis of these results provides a detailed spatial structure and temporal variability of the deep circulation in the SCS. The major features of the SCS deep circulation are a basin-scale cyclonic gyre and a concentrated deep western boundary current (DWBC). Transport of the DWBC is ∼ 2 Sv at 16.5° N with a width of ∼53 km. Flowing southwestward, the narrow DWBC becomes weaker with a wider range. The model results reveal the existence of 80- to 120-day oscillation in the deep northeastern circulation and the DWBC, which are also the areas with elevated eddy kinetic energy. This intraseasonal oscillation propagates northwestward with a velocity amplitude of ∼ 1.0 to 1.5 cm s-1. The distribution of mixing parameters in the deep SCS plays a role in both spatial structure and volume transport of the deep circulation. Compared with the northern shelf of the SCS with the Luzon Strait, deep circulation in the SCS is more sensitive to the large vertical mixing parameters of the Zhongsha Island Chain area.  
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  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1013  
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Author Gentemann, C.L.; Clayson, C.A.; Brown, S.; Lee, T.; Parfitt, R.; Farrar, J.T.; Bourassa, M.; Minnett, P.J.; Seo, H.; Gille, S.T.; Zlotnicki, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title FluxSat: Measuring the Ocean-Atmosphere Turbulent Exchange of Heat and Moisture from Space Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 12 Issue 11 Pages 1796  
  Keywords air-sea interactions; mesoscale; fluxes  
  Abstract Recent results using wind and sea surface temperature data from satellites and high-resolution coupled models suggest that mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interactions affect the locations and evolution of storms and seasonal precipitation over continental regions such as the western US and Europe. The processes responsible for this coupling are difficult to verify due to the paucity of accurate air-sea turbulent heat and moisture flux data. These fluxes are currently derived by combining satellite measurements that are not coincident and have differing and relatively low spatial resolutions, introducing sampling errors that are largest in regions with high spatial and temporal variability. Observational errors related to sensor design also contribute to increased uncertainty. Leveraging recent advances in sensor technology, we here describe a satellite mission concept, FluxSat, that aims to simultaneously measure all variables necessary for accurate estimation of ocean-atmosphere turbulent heat and moisture fluxes and capture the effect of oceanic mesoscale forcing. Sensor design is expected to reduce observational errors of the latent and sensible heat fluxes by almost 50%. FluxSat will improve the accuracy of the fluxes at spatial scales critical to understanding the coupled ocean-atmosphere boundary layer system, providing measurements needed to improve weather forecasts and climate model simulations.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1111  
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Author Bhardwaj, A.; Misra, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring the Indian Summer Monsoon Evolution at the Granularity of the Indian Meteorological Sub-divisions using Remotely Sensed Rainfall Products Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 9 Pages 1080  
  Keywords Indian Summer Monsoon; GPM; TRMM satellite precipitation; meteorological sub-divisions  
  Abstract We make use of satellite-based rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) to objectively define local onset and demise of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) at the spatial resolution of the meteorological subdivisions defined by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). These meteorological sub-divisions are the operational spatial scales for official forecasts issued by the IMD. Therefore, there is a direct practical utility to target these spatial scales for monitoring the evolution of the ISM. We find that the diagnosis of the climatological onset and demise dates and its variations from the TMPA product is quite similar to the rain gauge based analysis of the IMD, despite the differences in the duration of the two datasets. This study shows that the onset date variations of the ISM have a significant impact on the variations of the seasonal length and seasonal rainfall anomalies in many of the meteorological sub-divisions: for example, the early or later onset of the ISM is associated with longer and wetter or shorter and drier ISM seasons, respectively. It is shown that TMPA dataset (and therefore its follow up Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)) could be usefully adopted for monitoring the onset of the ISM and therefore extend its use to anticipate the potential anomalies of the seasonal length and seasonal rainfall anomalies of the ISM in many of the Indian meteorological sub-divisions. View Full-Text  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1026  
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Author Zou, M.; Xiong, X.; Wu, Z.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Increase of Atmospheric Methane Observed from Space-Borne and Ground-Based Measurements Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages  
  Keywords Methane increase trend; Boundary layer; Mid-upper troposphere; Satellite; AIRS  
  Abstract It has been found that the concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has rapidly increased since 2007 after a decade of nearly constant concentration in the atmosphere. As an important greenhouse gas, such an increase could enhance the threat of global warming. To better quantify this increasing trend, a novel statistic method, i.e. the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method, was used to analyze the CH4 trends from three different measurements: the mid-upper tropospheric CH4 (MUT) from the space-borne measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the CH4 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) from NOAA ground-based in-situ measurements, and the column-averaged CH4 in the atmosphere (X-CH4) from the ground-based up-looking Fourier Transform Spectrometers at Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Comparison of the CH4 trends in the mid-upper troposphere, lower troposphere, and the column average from these three data sets shows that, overall, these trends agree well in capturing the abrupt CH4 increase in 2007 (the first peak) and an even faster increase after 2013 (the second peak) over the globe. The increased rates of CH4 in the MUT, as observed by AIRS, are overall smaller than CH4 in MBL and the column-average CH4. During 2009-2011, there was a dip in the increase rate for CH4 in MBL, and the MUT-CH4 increase rate was almost negligible in the mid-high latitude regions. The increase of the column-average CH4 also reached the minimum during 2009-2011 accordingly, suggesting that the trends of CH4 are not only impacted by the surface emission, however that they also may be impacted by other processes like transport and chemical reaction loss associated with [OH]. One advantage of the EEMD analysis is to derive the monthly rate and the results show that the frequency of the variability of CH4 increase rates in the mid-high northern latitude regions is larger than those in the tropics and southern hemisphere.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1055  
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Author Huang, T.; Armstrong, E.M.; Bourassa, M.A.; Cram, T.A.; Elya, J.; Greguska, F.; Jacob, J.C.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, Y.; Li, Y.; Quach, N.T.; McGibbney, L.J.; Smith, S.R.; Wilson, B.D.; Worley S.J.; Yang, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An Integrated Data Analytics Platform Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords big data, Cloud computing, Ocean science, data analysis, Matchup, anomaly detection, open source  
  Abstract An Integrated Science Data Analytics Platform is an environment that enables the confluence of resources for scientific investigation. It harmonizes data, tools and computational resources to enable the research community to focus on the investigation rather than spending time on security, data preparation, management, etc. OceanWorks is a NASA technology integration project to establish a cloud-based Integrated Ocean Science Data Analytics Platform for big ocean science at NASA�s Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) for big ocean science. It focuses on advancement and maturity by bringing together several NASA open-source, big data projects for parallel analytics, anomaly detection, in situ to satellite data matchup, quality-screened data subsetting, search relevancy, and data discovery.

Our communities are relying on data available through distributed data centers to conduct their research. In typical investigations, scientists would (1) search for data, (2) evaluate the relevance of that data, (3) download it, and (4) then apply algorithms to identify trends, anomalies, or other attributes of the data. Such a workflow cannot scale if the research involves a massive amount of data or multi-variate measurements. With the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission expected to produce over 20PB of observational data during its 3-year nominal mission, the volume of data will challenge all existing Earth Science data archival, distribution and analysis paradigms. This paper discusses how OceanWorks enhances the analysis of physical ocean data where the computation is done on an elastic cloud platform next to the archive to deliver fast, web-accessible services for working with oceanographic measurements.
 
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  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1038  
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Author Fender, C.K.; Kelly, T.B.; Guidi, L.; Ohman, M.D.; Smith, M.C.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating Particle Size-Flux Relationships and the Biological Pump Across a Range of Plankton Ecosystem States From Coastal to Oligotrophic Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1074  
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Author Lee, C.M.; Starkweather, S.; Eicken, H.; Timmermans, M.-L.; Wilkinson, J.; Sandven, S.; Dukhovskoy, D.; Gerland, S.; Grebmeier, J.; Intrieri, J.M.; Kang, S.-H.; McCammon, M.; Nguyen, A.T.; Polyakov, I.; Rabe, B.; Sagen, H.; Seeyave, S.; Volkov, D.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Chafik, L.; Dzieciuch, M.; Goni, G.; Hamre, T.; King, A.L.; Olsen, A.; Raj, R.P.; Rossby, T.; Skagseth, Ø.; Søiland, H.; Sørensen, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Framework for the Development, Design and Implementation of a Sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1044  
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Author Davidson, F.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Brassington, G.B.; Chassignet, E.P.; Clementi, E.; De Mey-Frémaux, P.; Divakaran, P.; Harris, C.; Hernandez, F.; Hogan, P.; Hole, L.R.; Holt, J.; Liu, G.; Lu, Y.; Lorente, P.; Maksymczuk, J.; Martin, M.; Mehra, A.; Melsom, A.; Mo, H.; Moore, A.; Oddo, P.; Pascual, A.; Pequignet, A.-C.; Kourafalou, V.; Ryan, A.; Siddorn, J.; Smith, G.; Spindler, D.; Spindler, T.; Stanev, E.V.; Staneva, J.; Storto, A.; Tanajura, C.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zu, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Synergies in Operational Oceanography: The Intrinsic Need for Sustained Ocean Observations Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Operational oceanography can be described as the provision of routine oceanographic information needed for decision-making purposes. It is dependent upon sustained research and development through the end-to-end framework of an operational service, from observation collection to delivery mechanisms. The core components of operational oceanographic systems are a multi-platform observation network, a data management system, a data assimilative prediction system, and a dissemination/accessibility system. These are interdependent, necessitating communication and exchange between them, and together provide the mechanism through which a clear picture of ocean conditions, in the past, present, and future, can be seen. Ocean observations play a critical role in all aspects of operational oceanography, not only for assimilation but as part of the research cycle, and for verification and validation of products. Data assimilative prediction systems are advancing at a fast pace, in tandem with improved science and the growth in computing power. To make best use of the system capability these advances would be matched by equivalent advances in operational observation coverage. This synergy between the prediction and observation systems underpins the quality of products available to stakeholders, and justifies the need for sustained ocean observations. In this white paper, the components of an operational oceanographic system are described, highlighting the critical role of ocean observations, and how the operational systems will evolve over the next decade to improve the characterization of ocean conditions, including at finer spatial and temporal scales.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1083  
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