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Author Magar, V.; Godínez, V.M.; Gross, M.S.; López-Mariscal, M.; Bermúdez-Romero, A.; Candela, J.; and Zamudio, L. url  openurl
  Title In-stream Energy by Tidal and Wind-driven Currents: An Analysis for the Gulf of California Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1101  
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Author Bashmachnikov, I.L.; Fedorov, A.M.; Vesman, A.V.; Belonenko, T.V.; Dukhovskoy, D.S. url  openurl
  Title Thermohaline convection in the subpolar seas of the North Atlantic from satellite and in situ observations. Part 2: indices of intensity of deep convection Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 191-201  
  Keywords deep convection, assimilation of satellite data, altimetry, water density, the Greenland Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Irminger Sea  
  Abstract Variation in locations of the maximum development of deep convection in the subpolar seas, taking into account their small dimensions, represent difficulty in identifying its interannual variability from usually sparse in situ data. In this work, the interannual variability of the maximum convection depth, is obtained using one of the most complete datasets ARMOR, which combines in situ and satellite data. The convection depths, derived from ARMOR, are used for testing the efficiency of two indices of convection intensity: (1) sea-level anomalies from satellite altimetry and (2) the integral water density in the areas of the most frequent development of deep convection. The first index, capturing some details, shows low correlations with the interannual variability of the deep convection intensity. The second index shows high correlation with the deep convection intensity in the Greenland, Irminger and Labrador seas. Asynchronous variations in the deep convection intensity in the Labrador-Irminger seas and in the Greenland Sea are obtained. In the Labrador and in the Irminger seas, the quasi-seven-year variations in the convection intensity are identified.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1089  
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Author Zou, M.; Xiong, X.; Wu, Z.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Increase of Atmospheric Methane Observed from Space-Borne and Ground-Based Measurements Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages  
  Keywords Methane increase trend; Boundary layer; Mid-upper troposphere; Satellite; AIRS  
  Abstract It has been found that the concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has rapidly increased since 2007 after a decade of nearly constant concentration in the atmosphere. As an important greenhouse gas, such an increase could enhance the threat of global warming. To better quantify this increasing trend, a novel statistic method, i.e. the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method, was used to analyze the CH4 trends from three different measurements: the mid-upper tropospheric CH4 (MUT) from the space-borne measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the CH4 in the marine boundary layer (MBL) from NOAA ground-based in-situ measurements, and the column-averaged CH4 in the atmosphere (X-CH4) from the ground-based up-looking Fourier Transform Spectrometers at Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Comparison of the CH4 trends in the mid-upper troposphere, lower troposphere, and the column average from these three data sets shows that, overall, these trends agree well in capturing the abrupt CH4 increase in 2007 (the first peak) and an even faster increase after 2013 (the second peak) over the globe. The increased rates of CH4 in the MUT, as observed by AIRS, are overall smaller than CH4 in MBL and the column-average CH4. During 2009-2011, there was a dip in the increase rate for CH4 in MBL, and the MUT-CH4 increase rate was almost negligible in the mid-high latitude regions. The increase of the column-average CH4 also reached the minimum during 2009-2011 accordingly, suggesting that the trends of CH4 are not only impacted by the surface emission, however that they also may be impacted by other processes like transport and chemical reaction loss associated with [OH]. One advantage of the EEMD analysis is to derive the monthly rate and the results show that the frequency of the variability of CH4 increase rates in the mid-high northern latitude regions is larger than those in the tropics and southern hemisphere.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1055  
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Author Fender, C.K.; Kelly, T.B.; Guidi, L.; Ohman, M.D.; Smith, M.C.; Stukel, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Investigating Particle Size-Flux Relationships and the Biological Pump Across a Range of Plankton Ecosystem States From Coastal to Oligotrophic Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1074  
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Author Davidson, F.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Brassington, G.B.; Chassignet, E.P.; Clementi, E.; De Mey-Frémaux, P.; Divakaran, P.; Harris, C.; Hernandez, F.; Hogan, P.; Hole, L.R.; Holt, J.; Liu, G.; Lu, Y.; Lorente, P.; Maksymczuk, J.; Martin, M.; Mehra, A.; Melsom, A.; Mo, H.; Moore, A.; Oddo, P.; Pascual, A.; Pequignet, A.-C.; Kourafalou, V.; Ryan, A.; Siddorn, J.; Smith, G.; Spindler, D.; Spindler, T.; Stanev, E.V.; Staneva, J.; Storto, A.; Tanajura, C.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zu, Z. url  doi
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  Title Synergies in Operational Oceanography: The Intrinsic Need for Sustained Ocean Observations Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Operational oceanography can be described as the provision of routine oceanographic information needed for decision-making purposes. It is dependent upon sustained research and development through the end-to-end framework of an operational service, from observation collection to delivery mechanisms. The core components of operational oceanographic systems are a multi-platform observation network, a data management system, a data assimilative prediction system, and a dissemination/accessibility system. These are interdependent, necessitating communication and exchange between them, and together provide the mechanism through which a clear picture of ocean conditions, in the past, present, and future, can be seen. Ocean observations play a critical role in all aspects of operational oceanography, not only for assimilation but as part of the research cycle, and for verification and validation of products. Data assimilative prediction systems are advancing at a fast pace, in tandem with improved science and the growth in computing power. To make best use of the system capability these advances would be matched by equivalent advances in operational observation coverage. This synergy between the prediction and observation systems underpins the quality of products available to stakeholders, and justifies the need for sustained ocean observations. In this white paper, the components of an operational oceanographic system are described, highlighting the critical role of ocean observations, and how the operational systems will evolve over the next decade to improve the characterization of ocean conditions, including at finer spatial and temporal scales.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1083  
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Author Rodríguez, E.; Bourassa, M.; Chelton, D.; Farrar, J.T.; Long, D.; Perkovic-Martin, D.; Samelson, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Winds and Currents Mission Concept Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  Abstract The Winds and Currents Mission (WaCM) is a proposed approach to meet the need identified by the NRC Decadal Survey for the simultaneous measurements of ocean vector winds and currents. WaCM features a Ka-band pencil-beam Doppler scatterometer able to map ocean winds and currents globally. We review the principles behind the WaCM measurement and the requirements driving the mission. We then present an overview of the WaCM observatory and tie its capabilities to other OceanObs reviews and measurement approaches.  
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  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1063  
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Author Cronin, M.F.; Gentemann, C.L.; Edson, J.; Ueki, I.; Bourassa, M.; Brown, S.; Clayson, C.A.; Fairall, C.W.; Farrar, J.T.; Gille, S.T.; Gulev, S.; Josey, S.A.; Kato, S.; Katsumata, M.; Kent, E.; Krug, M.; Minnett, P.J.; Parfitt, R.; Pinker, R.T.; Stackhouse Jr., P.W.; Swart, S.; Tomita, H.; Vandemark, D.; Weller, A.R.; Yoneyama, K.; Yu, L.; Zhang, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Air-Sea Fluxes With a Focus on Heat and Momentum Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the global, ice-free ocean with breakthrough 1-day random uncertainty of 15 W m–2 and a bias of less than 5 W m–2. At present this accuracy target is met only for OceanSITES reference station moorings and research vessels (RVs) that follow best practices. To meet these targets globally, in the next decade, satellite-based observations must be optimized for boundary layer measurements of air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind stress. In order to tune and validate these satellite measurements, a complementary global in situ flux array, built around an expanded OceanSITES network of time series reference station moorings, is also needed. The array would include 500–1000 measurement platforms, including autonomous surface vehicles, moored and drifting buoys, RVs, the existing OceanSITES network of 22 flux sites, and new OceanSITES expanded in 19 key regions. This array would be globally distributed, with 1–3 measurement platforms in each nominal 10° by 10° box. These improved moisture and temperature profiles and surface data, if assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, would lead to better representation of cloud formation processes, improving state variables and surface radiative and turbulent fluxes from these models. The in situ flux array provides globally distributed measurements and metrics for satellite algorithm development, product validation, and for improving satellite-based, NWP and blended flux products. In addition, some of these flux platforms will also measure direct turbulent fluxes, which can be used to improve algorithms for computation of air-sea exchange of heat and momentum in flux products and models. With these improved air-sea fluxes, the ocean’s influence on the atmosphere will be better quantified and lead to improved long-term weather forecasts, seasonal-interannual-decadal climate predictions, and regional climate projections.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1067  
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Author Villas Bôas, A.B.; Ardhuin, F.; Ayet, A.; Bourassa, M.A.; Brandt, P.; Chapron, B.; Cornuelle, B.D.; Farrar, J.T.; Fewings, M.R.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Gille, S.T.; Gommenginger, C.; Heimbach, P.; Hell, M.C.; Li, Q.; Mazloff, M.R.; Merrifield, S.T.; Mouche, A.; Rio, M.H.; Rodriguez, E.; Shutler, J.D.; Subramanian, A.C.; Terrill, E.J.; Tsamados, M.; Ubelmann, C.; van Sebille, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Integrated Observations of Global Surface Winds, Currents, and Waves: Requirements and Challenges for the Next Decade Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Ocean surface winds, currents, and waves play a crucial role in exchanges of momentum, energy, heat, freshwater, gases, and other tracers between the ocean, atmosphere, and ice. Despite surface waves being strongly coupled to the upper ocean circulation and the overlying atmosphere, efforts to improve ocean, atmospheric, and wave observations and models have evolved somewhat independently. From an observational point of view, community efforts to bridge this gap have led to proposals for satellite Doppler oceanography mission concepts, which could provide unprecedented measurements of absolute surface velocity and directional wave spectrum at global scales. This paper reviews the present state of observations of surface winds, currents, and waves, and it outlines observational gaps that limit our current understanding of coupled processes that happen at the air-sea-ice interface. A significant challenge for the coming decade of wind, current, and wave observations will come in combining and interpreting measurements from (a) wave-buoys and high-frequency radars in coastal regions, (b) surface drifters and wave-enabled drifters in the open-ocean, marginal ice zones, and wave-current interaction �hot-spots,� and (c) simultaneous measurements of absolute surface currents, ocean surface wind vector, and directional wave spectrum from Doppler satellite sensors.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1064  
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Author Stukel, M.R.; Ohman, M.D.; Kelly, T.B.; Biard, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Roles of Suspension-Feeding and Flux-Feeding Zooplankton as Gatekeepers of Particle Flux Into the Mesopelagic Ocean in the Northeast Pacific Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Issue Pages  
  Keywords biological pump; carbon export; remineralization length scale; mesozooplankton ecology; pteropods; marine biogeochemistry; sinking particles; marine snow  
  Abstract Zooplankton are important consumers of sinking particles in the ocean's twilight zone. However, the impact of different taxa depends on their feeding mode. In contrast to typical suspension-feeding zooplankton, flux-feeding taxa preferentially consume rapidly sinking particles that would otherwise penetrate into the deep ocean. To quantify the potential impact of two flux-feeding zooplankton taxa [Aulosphaeridae (Rhizaria), and Limacina helicina (euthecosome pteropod)] and the total suspension-feeding zooplankton community, we measured depth-stratified abundances of these organisms during six cruises in the California Current Ecosystem. Using allometric-scaling relationships, we computed the percentage of carbon flux intercepted by flux feeders and suspension feeders. These estimates were compared to direct measurements of carbon flux attenuation (CFA) made using drifting sediment traps and U-238-Th-234 disequilibrium. We found that CFA in the shallow twilight zone typically ranged from 500 to 1000 m mol organic C flux remineralized per 10-m vertical depth bin. This equated to approximately 6-10% of carbon flux remineralized/10 m. The two flux-feeding taxa considered in this study could account for a substantial proportion of this flux near the base of the euphotic zone. The mean flux attenuation attributable to Aulosphaeridae was 0.69%/10 m (median = 0.21%/10 m, interquartile range = 0.04-0.81%) at their depth of maximum abundance (similar to 100 m), which would equate to similar to 10% of total flux attenuation in this depth range. The maximum flux attenuation attributable to Aulosphaeridae reached 4.2%/10 m when these protists were most abundant. L. helicina, meanwhile, could intercept 0.45-1.6% of carbon flux/10 m, which was slightly greater (on average) than the Aulosphaeridae. In contrast, suspension-feeding zooplankton in the mesopelagic (including copepods, euphausiids, appendicularians, and ostracods) had combined clearance rates of 2-81 L m(-3) day(-1) (mean of 19.6 L m(-3) day(-1)). This implies a substantial impact on slowly sinking particles, but a negligible impact on the presumably rapidly sinking fecal pellets that comprised the majority of the material collected in sediment traps. Our results highlight the need for a greater research focus on the many taxa that potentially act as flux feeders in the oceanic twilight zone.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
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  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1066  
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Author Shropshire, T.; Morey, S. L.; Chassignet, E. P.; Bozec, A.; Coles, V.J.; Landry, M.R.; Swalethorp, R.; Zapfe, G. and Stukel, M.R. url  openurl
  Title Quantifying spatiotemporal variability in zooplankton dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico with a physical-biogeochemical model Type $loc['typeJournal Article']
  Year 2019 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
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  Abstract Zooplankton play an important role in global biogeochemistry and their secondary production supports valuable fisheries of the world's oceans. Currently, zooplankton abundances cannot be estimated using remote sensing techniques. Hence, coupled physical-biogeochemical models (PBMs) provide an important tool for studying zooplankton on regional and global scales. However, evaluating the accuracy of zooplankton abundance estimates from PBMs has been a major challenge as a result of sparse observations. In this study, we configure a PBM for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from 1993&#65533;2012 and validate the model against an extensive combination of in situ biomass and rate measurements including total mesozooplankton biomass, size-fractionated mesozooplankton biomass and grazing rates, microzooplankton specific grazing rates, surface chlorophyll, deep chlorophyll maximum depth, phytoplankton specific growth rates, and net primary production. Spatial variability in mesozooplankton biomass climatology observed in a multi-decadal database for the northern GoM is well resolved by the model with a statistically significant (p&#8201;<&#8201;0.01) correlation of 0.90. Mesozooplankton secondary production for the region averaged 66&#8201;+&#8201;8&#8201;mt&#8201;C&#8201;yr&#8722;1 equivalent to approximately 10&#8201;% of NPP and ranged from 51 to 82&#8201;mt&#8201;C&#8201;yr&#8722;1. In terms of diet, model results from the shelf regions suggest that herbivory is the dominant feeding mode for small mesozooplankton (<&#8201;1-mm) whereas larger mesozooplankton are primarily carnivorous. However, in open-ocean, oligotrophic regions, both groups of mesozooplankton have proportionally greater reliance on heterotrophic protists as a food source. This highlights the important role of microbial and protistan food webs in sustaining mesozooplankton biomass in the GoM which serves as the primary food source for early life stages of many commercially-important fish species, including tuna.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Funding Approved $loc['no']  
  Call Number COAPS @ user @ Serial 1095  
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