Ahern, K., Bourassa, M. A., Hart, R. E., Zhang, J. A., & Rogers, R. F. (2019). Observed Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structure in the Hurricane Boundary Layer During Intensity Change.
Mon. Wea. Rev., .
Abstract: The axisymmetric structure of the inner-core hurricane boundary layer (BL) during intensification [IN; intensity tendency ≥ 20 kt (24 h)−1], weakening [WE; intensity tendency < −10 kt (24 h)−1], and steady-state [SS; the remainder] periods are analyzed using composites of GPS dropwindsondes from reconnaissance missions between 1998 and 2015. A total of 3,091 dropsondes were composited for analysis below 2.5 km elevation—1,086 during IN, 1,042 during WE, and 963 during SS. In non-intensifying hurricanes, the lowlevel tangential wind is greater outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW) than for intensifying hurricanes, implying higher inertial stability (I) at those radii for non-intensifying hurricanes. Differences in tangential wind structure (and I) between the groups also imply differences in secondary circulation. The IN radial inflow layer is of nearly equal or greater thickness than nonintensifying groups, and all groups show an inflow maximum just outside the RMW. Non-intensifying hurricanes have stronger inflow outside the eyewall region, likely associated with frictionally forced ascent out of the BL and enhanced subsidence into the BL at radii outside the RMW. Equivalent potential temperatures (θe) and conditional stability are highest inside the RMW of non-intensifying storms, which is potentially related to TC intensity. At greater radii, inflow layer θe is lowest in WE hurricanes, suggesting greater subsidence or more convective downdrafts at those radii compared to IN and SS hurricanes. Comparisons of prior observational and theoretical studies are highlighted, especially those relating BL structure to large-scale vortex structure, convection, and intensity.