Hughes, P. J. (2006).
North Atlantic Decadal Variability of Ocean Surface Fluxes. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: The spatial and temporal variability of the surface turbulent heat fluxes over the North Atlantic is examined using the new objectively produced FSU3 monthly mean 1°x1° gridded wind and surface flux product for 1978-2003. The FSU3 product is constructed from in situ ship and buoy observations via a variational technique. A cost function based on weighted constraints is minimized in the process of determining the surface fluxes. The analysis focuses on a low frequency (basin wide) mode of variability where the latent and sensible heat flux anomalies transition from mainly positive to negative values around 1998. It is hypothesized that the longer time scale variability is linked to changes in the large scale circulation patterns possibly associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO; Schlesinger and Ramankutty 1994, Kerr 2000). The changes in the surface heat fluxes are forced by fluctuations in the mean wind speed. Zonal averages show a clear dissimilarity between the turbulent heat fluxes and wind speed for 1982-1997 and 1998-2003 over the region extending from the equator to roughly 40°N. Larger values are associated with the earlier time period, coinciding with a cool phase of the AMO. The separation between the two time periods is much less evident for the humidity and air/sea temperature differences. The largest differences in the latent heat fluxes, between the two time periods, occur over the tropical, Gulf Stream, and higher latitude regions of the North Atlantic, with magnitudes exceeding 15 Wm-2. The largest sensible heat flux differences are limited to areas along the New England coast and poleward of 40°N.
Izaurralde, R. C., Rosenberg, N. J., Brown, R. A., Legler, D. M., Tiscareño López, M., & Srinivasan, R. (1999). Modeled effects of moderate and strong 'Los Niños' on crop productivity in North America.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 94(3-4), 259–268.
Kara, A. B., Rochford, P. A., & Hurlburt, H. E. (2002). Air-Sea Flux Estimates And The 1997-1998 Enso Event.
Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 103(3), 439–458.
Krishnamurti, T. N., Jana, S., Krishnamurti, R., Kumar, V., Deepa, R., Papa, F., et al. (2017). Monsoonal intraseasonal oscillations in the ocean heat content over the surface layers of the Bay of Bengal.
Journal of Marine Systems, 167, 19–32.
Liu, Y., Tan, Z. - M., & Wu, Z. (2019). Noninstantaneous Wave-CISK for the Interaction between Convective Heating and Low-Level Moisture Convergence in the Tropics.
J. Atmos. Sci., 76(7), 2083–2101.
Abstract: The interaction between tropical convective heating and thermally forced circulation is investigated using a global dry primitive-equation model with the parameterization of wave-conditional instability of the second kind (CISK). It is demonstrated that deep convective heating can hardly sustain itself through the moisture convergence at low levels regardless of the fraction of immediate consumption of converged moisture. In contrast, when the fraction is large, shallow convective heating and its forced circulation exhibit preferred growth of small scales. As the “CISK catastrophe” mainly comes from the instantaneous characters of moisture-convection feedback in the conventional wave-CISK, a noninstantaneous wave-CISK is proposed, which highlights the accumulation-consumption (AC) time scale for the convective heating accumulation and/or the converged moisture consumption. In the new wave-CISK, once moisture is converged, the release of latent heat takes place gradually within an AC time scale. In this sense, convective heating is not only related to the instantaneous moisture convergence at the current time, but also to that which occurred in the past period of the AC time scale. The noninstantaneous wave-CISK could guarantee the occurrence of convective heating and/or moisture convergence at larger scales, and then favor the growth of long waves, and thus solve the problem of CISK catastrophe. With the new wave-CISK and AC time scale of 2 days, the simulated convective heating-driven system bears a large similarity to that of the observed convectively coupled Kelvin wave.
Nagamani, P. V., Ali, M. M., Goni, G. J., Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S., McCreary, J. P., Weller, R. A., et al. (2016). Heat content of the Arabian Sea Mini Warm Pool is increasing.
Atmos. Sci. Lett., 17(1), 39–42.
Proshutinsky, A., Dukhovskoy, D., Timmermans, M. - L., Krishfield, R., & Bamber, J. L. (2015). Arctic circulation regimes.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci, 373(2052).
Abstract: Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.
Ramírez-Rodrigues, M. A., Alderman, P. D., Stefanova, L., Cossani, C. M., Flores, D., & Asseng, S. (2016). The value of seasonal forecasts for irrigated, supplementary irrigated, and rainfed wheat cropping systems in northwest Mexico.
Agricultural Systems, 147, 76–86.
Scott, J. P. (2011).
An Intercomparison of Numerically Modeled Flux Data and Satellite-Derived Flux Data for Warm Seclusions. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Shi, W. (2003). Estimation of heat and salt storage variability in the Indian Ocean from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry.
J. Geophys. Res., 108(C7).