Hilburn, K. A. (2003). Development of scatterometer-derived surface pressures for the Southern Ocean.
J. Geophys. Res., 108(C7).
Hite, M. M. (2006).
Vorticity-Based Detection of Tropical Cyclogenesis. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Ocean wind vectors from the SeaWinds scatterometer on QuikSCAT and GOES imagery are used to develop an objective technique that can detect and monitor tropical disturbances associated with the early stages of tropical cyclogenesis in the Atlantic basin. The technique is based on identification of surface vorticity and wind speed signatures that exceed certain threshold magnitudes, with vorticity averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. The threshold values applied herein are determined from the precursors of 15 tropical cyclones during the 1999-2004 Atlantic hurricane seasons using research-quality QuikSCAT data. Tropical disturbances are found for these cases within a range of 19 hours to 101 hours before classification as tropical cyclones by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). The 15 cases are further subdivided based upon their origination source (i.e., easterly wave, upper-level cut-off low, stagnant frontal zone, etc). Primary focus centers on the cases associated with tropical waves, since these waves account for approximately 63% of all Atlantic tropical cyclones. The detection technique illustrates the ability to track these tropical disturbances from near the coast of Africa. Analysis of the pre-tropical cyclone (TC) tracks for these cases depict stages, related to wind speed and precipitation, in the evolution of an easterly wave to tropical cyclone.
Maue, R. N. (2004).
Evolution of Frontal Structure Associated with Extratropical Transitioning Hurricanes. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Many tropical cyclones move poleward, encounter vertical shear associated with the midlatitude circulation, and undergo a process called extratropical transition (ET). One of the many factors affecting the post-transition extratropical storm in terms of reintensification, frontal structure, and overall evolution is the upper-level flow pattern. Schultz et al. (1998) categorized extratropical cyclones according to two of the many possible cyclone paradigms in terms of the upper-level trough configuration: The Norwegian cyclone model (Bjerknes and Solberg 1922) associated with high-amplitude diffluent trough flow and the Shapiro-Keyser cyclone lifecycle (1990) with low-amplitude confluent troughs. Broadly speaking, the former category is associated with a strong, meridionally oriented cold front with a weak warm front while the latter lifecycle usually entails a prominent, zonally oriented warm front. However, as will be shown, simple antipode lifecycle definitions fail to capture hybrid or cross-lifecycle evolution of transitioned tropical cyclones. To exemplify the importance upper-level features such as jet streaks and troughs, a potential vorticity framework is coupled with vector frontogenesis functions to diagnose the interaction between the poleward transitioning cyclone and the midlatitude circulation. Particular focus is concentrated upon the evolution and strength of frontal fracture from both a PV and frontogenesis viewpoint. The final outcome of extratropical transition is highly variable depending on characteristics of the tropical cyclone, SSTs, and environmental factors such as strength of vertical shear. Here, three storms (Irene 1999, Fabian 2003, and Kate 2003) typify the inherent variability of one such ET outcome, warm seclusion. Very strong winds are often observed in excess of 50 ms-1 along the southwestern flank of the storm down the bent-back warm front. The low-level wind field kinematics are examined using vector frontogenesis functions and QuikSCAT winds. A complex empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) technique is adapted to temporally interpolate ECMWF model fields (T, MSLP) to overpass times of the scatterometer, an improvement over simple linear interpolation. Overall, the above diagnosis is used to support a hypothesis concerning the prevalence of hurricane-force winds surrounding secluded systems.
Keywords: Extratropical Transition, Frontogenesis, Fronts, Quikscat, Cyclone Lifecycles, Warm Seclusion, Frontal Fracture, Potential Vorticity, Hurricane Kate, Hurricane Irene, Hurricane Fabian, Tropical Cyclones
May, J. (2010).
Quantifying Variance Due to Temporal and Spatial Difference Between Ship and Satellite Winds. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Ocean vector winds measured by the SeaWinds scatterometer onboard the QuikSCAT satellite can be validated with in situ data. Ideally the comparison in situ data would be collocated in both time and space to the satellite overpass; however, this is rarely the case because of the time sampling interval of the in situ data and the sparseness of data. To compensate for the lack of ideal collocations, in situ data that are within a certain time and space range of the satellite overpass are used for comparisons. To determine the total amount of random observational error, additional uncertainty from the temporal and spatial difference must be considered along with the uncertainty associated with the data sets. The purpose of this study is to quantify the amount of error associated with the two data sets, as well as the amount of error associated with the temporal and/or spatial difference between two observations. The variance associated with a temporal difference between two observations is initially examined in an idealized case that includes only Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) one-minute data. Temporal differences can be translated into spatial differences by using Taylor's hypothesis. The results show that as the time difference increases, the amount of variance increases. Higher wind speeds are also associated with a larger amount of variance. Collocated SeaWinds and SAMOS observations are used to determine the total variance associated with a temporal (equivalent) difference from 0 to 60 minutes. If the combined temporal and spatial difference is less than 25 minutes (equivalent), the variance associated with the temporal and spatial difference is offset by the observational errors, which are approximately 1.0 m2s-2 for wind speeds between 4 and 7 ms-1 and approximately 1.5 m2s-2 for wind speeds between 7 and 12 ms-1. If the combined temporal and spatial difference is greater than 25 minutes (equivalent), then the variance associated with the temporal and spatial difference is no longer offset by the variance associated with observational error in the data sets; therefore, the total variance gradually increases as the time difference increases.
Paget, A. C., Bourassa, M. A., & Anguelova, M. D. (2015). Comparing in situ and satellite-based parameterizations of oceanic whitecaps.
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120(4), 2826–2843.
Stewart, M. L. (2007).
Cyclogenesis and Tropical Transition in Frontal Zones. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Tropical cyclones can form from many different precursors, including baroclinic systems. The process of an extratropical system evolving into a warm core tropical cyclone is defined by Davis and Bosart (2004) as a Tropical Transition (TT) with further classification of systems into Weak Extratropical Cylclones (WEC) and Strong Extratropical Cyclones (SEC). It is difficult to predict which systems will make the transition and which will not, but the description of a common type of TT occurring along a front will aid forecasters in identifying systems that might undergo TT. A wind speed and SST relationship thought to be necessary for this type of transition is discussed. QuikSCAT and other satellite data are used to locate TT cases forming along fronts and track their transformation into tropical systems. Frontal TT is identified as a subset of SEC TT and the evolution from a frontal wave to a tropical system is described in five stages. A frontal wave with stronger northerly wind and weaker southerly wind is the first stage in the frontal cyclogenesis. As the extratropical cyclogenesis continues in the next two stages, bent back warm front stage and instant occlusion stage, the warmer air of the bent back front becomes surrounded by cooler air . Next, in the subtropical stage the latent heat release energy from the ocean surface begins ascent and forms a shallow warm core. As the energy from surface heat fluxes translates to convection within the system, the warm core extends further into the upper levels of the atmosphere in the final, tropical stage of TT. Model data from MM5 simulations of three storms, Noel (2001), Peter (2003) and Gaston (2004) are analyzed to illustrate the five stages of frontal TT. Noel is found to have the most baroclinic origin of the three and Gaston the least.