Kvaleberg, E., Morey, S. L., & O'Brien, J. J.
Modeling frontal instabilities in the Gulf of Mexico (J. Cote, Ed.). Research Activities in Atmospheric and Ocean Modeling, Report No. 33. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.
Kvaleberg, E., Morey, S. L., & O'Brien, J. J. (2003). Frontogenesis and subsequent formation of cold filaments and eddies on an idealized shelf. In
OCEANS 2003 MTS/IEEE: Celebrating the Past... Teaming toward the Future (pp. 2831–2834).
LaCasce, J. H., Escartin, J., Chassignet, E. P., & Xu, X. (2018). Jet instability over smooth, corrugated and realistic bathymetry.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., .
Abstract: The stability of a horizontally- and vertically-sheared surface jet is examined, with a focus on the vertical structure of the resultant eddies. Over a flat bottom, the instability is mixed baroclinic/barotropic, producing strong eddies at depth which are characteristically shifted downstream relative to the surface eddies. Baroclinic instability is suppressed over a large slope for retrograde jets (with a flow anti-parallel to topographic wave propagation), and to a lesser extent for prograde jets (with flow parallel to topographic wave propagation), as seen previously. In such cases, barotropic (lateral) instability dominates if the jet is sufficiently narrow. This yields surface eddies whose size is independent of the slope but proportional to the jet width. Deep eddies still form, forced by interfacial motion associated with the surface eddies, but they are weaker than under baroclinic instability and are vertically aligned with the surface eddies. A sinusoidal ridge acts similarly, suppressing baroclinic instability and favoring lateral instability in the upper layer.
A ridge with a 1 km wavelength and an amplitude of roughly 10 m is sufficient to suppress baroclinic instability. Surveys of bottom roughness from bathymetry acquired with shipboard multibeam echosounding reveal that such heights are common, beneath the Kuroshio, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and, to a lesser extent, the Gulf Stream. Consistent with this, vorticity and velocity cross sections from a 1/50° HYCOM simulation suggest that Gulf Stream eddies are vertically aligned, as in the linear stability calculations with strong topography. Thus lateral instability may be more common than previously thought, due to topography hindering vertical energy transfer.
Lagerloef, G. S. E., Lukas, R., Bonjean, F., Gunn, J. T., Mitchum, G. T., Bourassa, M., et al. (2003). El Niño Tropical Pacific Ocean surface current and temperature evolution in 2002 and outlook for early 2003.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10).
Landry, M. R., Selph, K. E., Decima, M., Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A., Stukel, M. R., Taylor, A. G., et al. (2016). Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome.
J Plankton Res, 38(2), 366–379.
Abstract: We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from 14C uptake (1025 +/- 113 mg C m-2 day-1) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990 +/- 106 mg C m-2 day-1) and flow cytometry populations (862 +/- 71 mg C m-2 day-1), exceeded regional ship-based values by 2-3-fold. Picophytoplankton accounted for 56% of community biomass and 39% of production. Production profiles extended deeper for Prochlorococcus (PRO) and picoeukaryotes than for Synechococcus (SYN) and larger eukaryotes, but 93% of total production occurred above 40 m. Microzooplankton consumed all PRO and SYN growth and two-third of total production. Positive net growth of larger eukaryotes in the upper 40 m was balanced by independently measured consumption by mesozooplankton. Among larger eukaryotes, diatoms contributed approximately 3% to production. On the basis of this analysis, the CRD region is characterized by high production and grazing turnover, comparable with or higher than estimates for the eastern equatorial Pacific. The region nonetheless displays characteristics atypical of high productivity, such as picophytoplankton dominance and suppressed diatom roles.
Langland, R. H., Maue, R. N., & Bishop, C. H. (2008). Uncertainty in atmospheric temperature analyses.
Tellus A, 60(4), 598–603.
LaRow, T. (2013). An analysis of tropical cyclones impacting the Southeast United States from a regional reanalysis.
Reg Environ Change, 13(S1), 35–43.
LaRow, T. E., Y.-K. Lim, D. W. Shin, S. D. Cocke, and E. Chassignet. (2007).
High resolution ensemble west Atlantic basin seasonal hurricane simulations. CAS/JSC Working Group on Numerical Experimentation.
LaRow, T. E., & Cocke, S. (2004, Spring). Methods for Multi¬Model Proxies for Climate Studies.
CLIVAR Exchanges Newsletter.
LaRow, T. E., & Cocke, S. D. (1999).
Simulation of the 1997/98 and 1991/92 ENSO event using a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Regional Spectral Model (H. Ritchie, Ed.). Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling.