Lobodin, V. V., Maksimova, E. V., & Rodgers, R. P. (2016). Gas Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Fingerprinting the Macondo Oil Spill.
Anal Chem, 88(13), 6914–6922.
Abstract: We report the first application of a new mass spectrometry technique (gas chromatography combined to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry, GC/APCI-MS/MS) for fingerprinting a crude oil and environmental samples from the largest accidental marine oil spill in history (the Macondo oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico, 2010). The fingerprinting of the oil spill is based on a trace analysis of petroleum biomarkers (steranes, diasteranes, and pentacyclic triterpanes) naturally occurring in crude oil. GC/APCI enables soft ionization of petroleum compounds that form abundant molecular ions without (or little) fragmentation. The ability to operate the instrument simultaneously in several tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) modes (e.g., full scan, product ion scan, reaction monitoring) significantly improves structural information content and sensitivity of analysis. For fingerprinting the oil spill, we constructed diagrams and conducted correlation studies that measure the similarity between environmental samples and enable us to differentiate the Macondo oil spill from other sources.
Lombardi, K. C. (2004).
Resolving the Diurnal and Synoptic Variance of Scatterometer Vector Wind Observations. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: Scatterometer observations of vector winds are used to examine the amplitudes of synoptic and diurnal cycles. Scatterometers have the advantage of providing global coverage over water; however, irregular temporal sampling complicates the analyses. A least squares technique is used in determination of the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and synoptic cycles on spatial scales of 5°, 15°, and 30°. In open ocean areas and regions with sufficient open water, the magnitudes of the diurnal and synoptic cycles are 1.0 ms-1 and 3.5ms-1, respectively. Diurnal amplitudes are highest in the polar regions and close to land surfaces due to sea breeze effects. The fraction of variance explained by the diurnal cycle is greatest near the equator. Synoptic amplitudes are consistently larger downwind of land from storm tracks and in the southern polar region as the time analyzed is during the southern winter season.
López, M., Zamudio, L., & Padilla, F. (2005). Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño on the exchange of the northern Gulf of California.
J. Geophys. Res., 110(C11).
Lowry, M. R. (2009).
Developing a Unified Superset in Quantifying Ambiguities Among Tropical Cyclone Best Track Data for the Western North Pacific. Master's thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Abstract: In the western North Pacific basin, several agencies archive “best track” data of tropical cyclones. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) in Hawaii is responsible for the issuance of tropical cyclone warnings for United States Department of Defense interests and has a record of tropical cyclones extending back to 1945. The Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) is the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for the western North Pacific basin and has best track tropical cyclone data extending back to 1951. The Shanghai Typhoon Institute (STI) of the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region also have 6-hourly tropical cyclone data records from 1949 and 1961, respectively. Western North Pacific (WNP) data sets are investigated in order to quantify ambiguities in position and intensity estimates among the forecast institutions through the development of a unified Superset. Ambiguities among the two primary warning centers (JMA and JTWC) are presented in the context of a changing observation network, observational tools, and analysis techniques since the beginning of tropical cyclone records. Mean differences in position estimates are found between the two centers on the order of 60 km prior to the introduction of meteorological satellites in 1961 and near 50 km following the deactivation of aircraft reconnaissance in 1987. Results show a step function change among intensity in JTWC and JMA best track data from 1989 to 1990 due to varying applications of the Dvorak intensity estimation technique. Parsing best track data into landfall subsets does not ameliorate interagency differences in position or intensity estimates. Additionally, analyses from Superset data call into question the veracity of JTWC best track data during the period from 1995-1999. The applicability of adopting an individual data set in discerning long term climate trends is examined in light of these differences. Past efforts to analyze, assemble, and maintain a complete, reliable best track tropical cyclone data set for the WNP are discussed among topical methods of incorporating the Superset within a basin-wide re-analysis.
Lu, J., Chassignet, E. P., Yin, J., Misra, V., & Michael, J. - P. (2013).
Comparison of HYCOM and POP models in the CCSM3.0 Framework. Part I: Modes of climate variability beyond ENSO.
Lu, J., Hu, A., & Zeng, Z. (2014). On the possible interaction between internal climate variability and forced climate change.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(8), 2962–2970.
Lu, J., Wang, F., Liu, H., & Lin, P. (2016). Stationary mesoscale eddies, upgradient eddy fluxes, and the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(2), 743–751.
Luecke, C. A., Arbic, B. K., Bassette, S. L., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Alford, M. H., et al. (2017). The Global Mesoscale Eddy Available Potential Energy Field in Models and Observations.
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122(11), 9126–9143.
Luecke, C. A., Arbic, B. K., Bassette, S. L., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Alford, M. H., et al. (2017). The Global Mesoscale Eddy Available Potential Energy Field in Models and Observations: GLOBAL LOW-FREQUENCY EDDY APE.
J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122(11), 9126–9143.
Abstract: Global maps of the mesoscale eddy available potential energy (EAPE) field at a depth of 500 m are created using potential density anomalies in a high‐resolution 1/12.5° global ocean model. Maps made from both a free‐running simulation and a data‐assimilative reanalysis of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are compared with maps made by other researchers from density anomalies in Argo profiles. The HYCOM and Argo maps display similar features, especially in the dominance of western boundary currents. The reanalysis maps match the Argo maps more closely, demonstrating the added value of data assimilation. Global averages of the simulation, reanalysis, and Argo EAPE all agree to within about 10%. The model and Argo EAPE fields are compared to EAPE computed from temperature anomalies in a data set of “moored historical observations” (MHO) in conjunction with buoyancy frequencies computed from a global climatology. The MHO data set allows for an estimate of the EAPE in high‐frequency motions that is aliased into the Argo EAPE values. At MHO locations, 15–32% of the EAPE in the Argo estimates is due to aliased motions having periods of 10 days or less. Spatial averages of EAPE in HYCOM, Argo, and MHO data agree to within 50% at MHO locations, with both model estimates lying within error bars observations. Analysis of the EAPE field in an idealized model, in conjunction with published theory, suggests that much of the scatter seen in comparisons of different EAPE estimates is to be expected given the chaotic, unpredictable nature of mesoscale eddies.
MacKinnon, J. A., Alford, M. H., Ansong, J. K., Arbic, B. K., Barna, A., Briegleb, B. P., et al. (2017). Climate Process Team on Internal-Wave Driven Ocean Mixing.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98(11), 2429–2454.